How to write a bibliographyDecember 16, 2013 - Posted to Tips and Prompts
A bibliography is a list of relevant materials that have been used by the writer in doing a research paper. Definitely if you are undertaking a research paper a bibliography page has to appear at the end of your research paper contrary to ordinary academic essays. For students who are mixed up, we have come up with reasons that make it almost impossible for a bibliography section to be missing in their research paper.
- In your research, the books, journals, and articles you use as sources fall under the bibliography page.
- Citing arguments of critics and supporters gathered from books, articles.
- Quoting sources: you need a bibliography that will help readers track down the type of material you used.
Where a bibliography is not important
You do not a bibliography page in instances where you provide footnotes to name the source of your material and the authors of every quote. Therefore students are free to choose what they are comfortable with.
How to write a bibliography
Guidelines on how to write a bibliography using the American psychological association format:
Publication titles should be italicized or underlined.
The format used when writing a bibliography for books used:
Authors surname, authors first name. (Year of publication) Title. Publisher’s city: publisher. Page number.
- Rowan, Melissa. (2007) Fashion Design: A guide to the most recommended fashion designs. Boston, ma: Carty Hopkins Inc.pp.56-78.
- Clifford, Harry. (1999) Video Games: The Technology Of Computer Games. New York: Techno Ltd.pp90-97.
When writing periodicals the publisher city and name are not necessary. In place of this title of the article and volume number of the periodical are inserted. Titles of the articles are highlighted with quotation marks while the publication title should be italicized and underlined. Here is the format:
Author Surname, Author First Name. (Publication Date) “Article title.” Publication title, vol. #. (Issue#), page numbers.
Felicity, Maya. (February 2010) “Challenges entrepreneurs undergo.”Harvard business review 200, pp.67-78.
Web versions of printed material
Web content is updated almost on a day to day basis. When using sources from different websites it is important that you include the day of retrieval of the direct source (URL) that you’ve referred to while quoting. When referencing an online book, follow the same format used for books what you need to add is the retrieval statement of URL.
Author. (Date of internet publication) “Document title.” Title of publication. Retrieved on: Date From Full Web Address, start with http://
Jacquelyn Smith. (September 23, 2013) “The Top 25 Universities to Work For” Forbes. Retrieved on September 23, 2013 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/jacquelynsmith/2013/09/23/the-top-25-universities-to-work-for/
Citing sources in the text
Curious readers relay on in-text citations used by the writer. These citations tell them exactly where to go and look. Formats of in-text citations
- Begin with the surname of the author, followed by year of publication and the page number
- For internet sources, the original publication is the only one that is included in the citations not the retrieval date
- Use document title where the name of the author is not listed
Use of signal phrases
A signal phrase is used to alert the reader. It sends the message that you are citing another source for the information about to be read. For, example
- Lincoln (1962) reported that “cancer victims are going to increase in the coming generations.”(Sec 1, “introduction”)
- According to one study (Lincoln, 1962) “cancer victims are going to increase in the coming generations.”(Sec 1, “introduction”)
A quote that is more than four lines or 40 words is a long quote. Therefore quotes such as these are offset from the left margin of the page. Punctuation marks are normally not used.
Source-reflective statements reduce detection of plagiarized information in your paper. They give the writer freedom to use own voice and opinion without confusing your readers.
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