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In assessing the human health, vegetable diets play a principal role in ensuring desirable functioning of the human body. Vegetable diets are associated with higher proportion of different nutrients such as nutritional vitamins C and E, folic acid, magnesium and other countless phytochemicals. A vegetable food regimen has different advantages to the human physique including reducing the threat of cataract development, reducing the incidence of diabetes, reducing the hazard of cardiovascular diseases, reducing the risk of stroke and the improvement of kidney stones. Additionally, vegetable diets have low level of cholesterol. Different research has proven that a vegetarian diet that is mainly made up of plant ingredients could be able to decrease cholesterol levels in the body as effectively as could have happened through drug treatment. Moreover, through reducing the level of cholesterol in the body, the vegetable diet can prevent clogging in the coronary arteries
Difference between DNA and RNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a hereditary chemical material in human beings and almost all another organism. They are usually long macromolecule and transfers genetic characteristics in all forms of life. On the other hand, ribonucleic acid is used by the body in critical metabolic processes of protein synthesis in living cells and usually carries genetic information of numerous viruses. There are some differences that exist between the DNA and the RNA. First, the DNA occurs inside the nucleus and some cell organelles while very little of the RNA is found inside the nucleus. It is mostly found in the cytoplasm. The DNA also contains over one million nucleotides while the RNA may contain between 70- 12000 nucleotides depending on its type. Besides the sugar portion of the DNA is 2 deoxyribose while Ribose is the sugar portion of the RNA. Additionally, the DNA is usually double stranded while the RNA is single stranded.
Molecules of Life and Cells
There exist four molecules of life which include the proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and the nucleic acids. Each of the groups is essential for an organism. Without these molecules, both a cell and an organism would not be able to survive. Proteins are the most common molecules that are found in animals. Proteins are made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen and sometimes Sulphur and Phosphorus. Proteins are polymers meaning it is made up of monomers called the amino acids (Michaelian, 2014). The amino acids exist in different forms however they can only be grouped into to; the essential and the non-essential amino acids.
The primary structure of proteins includes long chains that are made up of other smaller molecules called the amino acids. The various amino acids are arranged into trillions of varying sequences that each creates. The long chain of the amino acids twists and folds itself to give the final shape of protein. The secondary structure of proteins refers to the shape of a folding protein. The folding is brought about by the bonding between the carbonyl groups and the backbone amide that is propelled by hydrogen bonding. The most encountered forms of secondary protein structures are the alpha-helices and the beta-pleated sheets (Michaelian & Simeonov, 2014).
Combining Micro and Macro Concepts
Carbon dioxide is the major product produced during combustion, and it is also one of the contributors to the greenhouse effect as well as global warming. Carbon dioxide as a compound is formed from a single atom of carbon and two oxygen atoms. Carbon as an element has only four outer shell electrons, and oxygen has six. Double covalent bonds are then formed between the elements whereby two electrons from each atom is shared therefore making two bonding electrons in total. Two groups of the bonding electrons in carbon dioxide usually repel each other therefore keeping oxygen atoms as far away from each other. The bond created between the oxygen atoms, and the carbon atom is less reactive than water therefore it becomes difficult to break it. Just like water, the bonds forming carbon dioxide are polar covalent thereby making the carbon atom delta positive and the oxygen delta negative. It is the strong covalent bond formed by oxygen that is associated with global warming and the greenhouse effect.
The rain forests are made of different kinds of plants. The plants through the process of photosynthesis make their foods. Moreover, the processes of respiration and photosynthesis are the basis of the carbon cycle. Through photosynthesis, plants use carbon dioxide and the energy from the sun to create carbohydrates and oxygen. Through this, the plants ensure that flux of carbon cycle is maintained. Additionally, the importance of the rainforests depends on the extent of the forest since most of the carbon is stored below the vegetation (Michaelian & Simeonov, 2014).
Genetics and Evolution
The different defects during childbirth that are caused by altered genes were as a result of the radiation resulting from the bomb. When the particles of the radiation give off radiation, it means they are decomposing. Notably, during the decomposing process, different elements are released, and they puncture the various body tissues. The released elements then result to the injuries of the DNA in both the parent and the unborn baby.
Moreover, different studies have shown damages done such as chromosome aberrations, loss of the erythrocyte and the alteration of the plasma. Epigenetic effects were also experienced among the unborn babies. The epigenetic effects are the ones that cause a permanent change in the gene expression without a change in the DNA sequence. The modification does not only happen DNA but to other cellular components such as the RNA
Understanding the Scientific Method
The scientific method can be termed the process by which the scientists collectively endeavor to construct a reliable and accurate overall representation of the world. The method is made up of four steps. They include the observation and description of the phenomenon, formulation of the hypothesis, using the aspects and the performance of the experimental test. The same steps can be applied in the drug evaluation process to enable enough and definitive tests to be done on any drug that is about to be released to the market.
On the other hand sample size control also plays a significant role in ensuring the numbers of observations are enough to give a convincing conclusion. Sample control helps in making inferences about a given population or an object under study. In experimental design, the selected sample can be divided into different groups with each group having differing sizes (Michaelian & Simeonov, 2014). In testing of a drug, the number of samples needs to be enough to enable conclusive findings on the effect and effectiveness of the drug to be established. This will also incorporate the number of variables to be used in the experiment. Variables help in the assessment of the efficiency of the drug and to determine the best environment where the drug can be used.
Michaelian, K., & Simeonov, A. (2014). Fundamental molecules of life are pigments which arose and evolved to dissipate the solar spectrum. arxiv preprint arXiv:1405.4059.
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