Anatomy of Respiratory System Essay

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Respiratory system aid in the exchange of various gases between blood, the air and other vital body cells through inhalation, exhalation and breathing. It is also chief in helping people to both smell and create sound. The main functions of respiratory system are;

 Inhalation and exhalation.

The air is inhaled through oral cavities and the nasal cavity (mouth and nose) through a process called pulmonary ventilation. The air proceeds through trachea, pharynx and larynx through to the lungs. There are changes that occur during this process which make the pressure and volume trigger pulmonary ventilation. During the normal inhalation, there is the contraction of both the external intercostal organs and the diaphragm resulting to the elevation of the ribcages. Simultaneously, increasing the volume in the lungs results to the air entry. In the exhalation process, the muscles usually elevate resulting the lungs to appear smaller in size and the air pressure increases resulting to air being expelled in the process.

Gases Exchange.

            In the respiratory system, exchange of gases take place inside the lungs. External respiration is the process where oxygen is interchanged for carbon dioxide. The whole respiratory process occurs in the tiny sacs called the alveoli. The oxygen present from the breathed air, disperse from the alveoli into the bordering pulmonary capillaries. This result to the binding of the haemoglobin molecules that are found in the red blood cells which in turn results to the pumping of it through the blood stream. Meanwhile, the deoxygenated blood dispenses into the alveoli from the capillaries and is exhaled.

Gases exchange between body tissues and bloodstream.

            The bloodstream plays a vital role in delivering oxygen to the cells and again it is responsible through the process of internal respiration in the removal of carbon dioxide. Through a process called vasculature, the red blood cells are responsible in carrying oxygen which is absorbed in the lungs. There is the release of oxygen by the red blood cells after the oxygenated blood reaches the capillaries. It dispenses through the capillaries walls into the body tissues. Furthermore, carbon dioxide is carried by deoxygenated blood back to the lungs for release.

Creation of sound and Vibration

            Sound is created through a process called phonation in the respiratory system. Air travels through the larynx from the lungs by the process of exhalation. When speaking, the arytenoid cartilages is moved by the muscles in the larynx. The cartilages are responsible in pushing the vocal cords together. The pushing of cords together results in the vibration between the cords and thus resulting to the creation of sound. Higher frequency sounds and rapid vibrations are generated by significant rigidity in the articulated cords. However, lower pitch and slower vibration causes lesser tension.

Internal Respiration

            The process of internal respiration mainly revolves in the transportation of gases between the body tissues and the blood cell. The oxygen found within the lungs diffuses across the alveoli with the oxygen depleted blood surrounded by the capillaries that contains the oxygen. On the other hand, carbon dioxide dispenses in the opposite direction. The circulatory system transports oxygenated blood to the body cells and tissues cells from the lung capillaries. While oxygen is in use, carbon dioxide is transported from tissue cell to the lungs.

Cellular Respiration

            Cellular respiration uses the oxygen obtained from internal respiration in it cells to ensure that there is a good circulation of air. Biological molecules composing foods like protein and carbohydrates are broken down in order for the energy stored in the food is accessed and the body tissues utilize it. The digestive process is responsible for this where the nutrients are absorbed after the food has been broken down. This nutrient is transported to the body cells as blood is circulated throughout the body. In this respiration, the glucose obtained in the digestion process is essential in the production of energy. The glucose and oxygen are converted form water, carbon dioxide and adenosine triphosphate. Water and carbon dioxide formed in the process generally diffuses to form interstitial fluids that surrounds the cell. Adenosine triphosphate provides the energy needed to perform various cell functions e.g. muscle contraction and cell division.

Aerobic Respiration

            This respiration consists of three vital stages namely: electron transport, glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. Glycolysis involves the oxidation of the glucose into pyruvate.  Molecules of adenosine triphosphate are also produced in the glycolysis. The Krebs cycle is critical in creating an electrical gradient which is essential in the transportation of the hydrogen protons to the intermembrane space. On the other hand, the electron carries protein complexes within the mitochondria inner membrane. This provides the energy required by the adenosine phosphate.

Conductive zone

This is the respiratory consisting of the trachea, larynx, pharynx, nose, bronchi and bronchioles. These structures are essential since it is the continuous pathway for the air to circulate in and out of the lungs.

Respiratory zone

            This respiratory structure lies inside the lungs and consists of structures like alveolar ducts, alveoli and bronchioles. These structures allow the breathed air to dispense into the capillaries of the lungs resulting in the exchange of gases for the release of carbon dioxide.

Movement of air from the outside to the inside of the body

            External air travels through the alveoli where it interacts with the blood through capillaries. The air either enters through the nasal cavity or the mouth where it is warmed and also small particles trapped by mucus. From there, the air passes through pharynx which acts as the passage for both air and food substances to travel downwards. The air comes into contact with glottis as it passes through larynx. From the trachea, the air travels towards the lungs. Bronchioles are fine pathways within the respiratory system. Oxygen is transferred to the alveoli where it is exchanged for carbon dioxide.


            These is a process involving the movement of intercostal muscles, ribs and the diaphragm to move the air in and out of the lungs.

Control of ventilation

            These is a process which allows a person to control and generally regulates amount of oxygen entering the body. These process is however, tightly controlled and monitored in the brain to keep the dissolved gases in the blood in a narrow physiologic range.  Effectors, sensors and central controllers are the factors which are the basic elements responsible for this respiratory control system to take place with accuracy.

Respiratory Centers

            These are part of brainstem located in the medulla oblongata and the pons. Its main purpose is to receive various controlling signals of chemical and the hormonal nature as well as the neurons and control the movement and the rate of other respiratory muscle and diaphragm.

 Lung Volume

            These is the volume in the lungs at a given specific time during the respiratory cycle. It is derived from different summation of the lungs capacities. Six liters is the average total lung capacity an adult should have.

Gas Exchange

            Gas exchange is a process in which the respiratory exchange surfaces in the lungs exchange air and the blood resulting to effective breathing to take place.


Oxygen Transport

            The transportation of oxygen through both diffusion and convection occurs within the body tissues. The haemoglobin molecules through the pulmonary capillaries are responsible in the transportation of oxygen. Oxygen diffuses in the alveoli to the pulmonary capillary into the tissues through the systematic capillaries.

Carbon Dioxide Transport

            Carbon dioxide is transported in 3 ways in the body. Through the process of binding to haemoglobin, carried as bicarbonate icon or dissolution directly into the blood.


Respiratory dynamics.

            Respiratory dynamics are activities like when exercising, the body may demand more oxygen in order to function properly.

Process of internal respiration

            These is the process in which the gases are exchanged internally. Through external respiration, the gases are drawn in the lungs. Carbon dioxide is released from the blood thus allowing oxygen gas to replace it. The internal respiration takes places in the respiratory system where the gaseous exchange with higher concertation are reduced to lower concentration and vice versa.


            Doing vigorous exercise in crucial and have positive effect on the respiratory system. Some activities like the aerobic ones such as swimming, running, cycling and other physical sports are beneficial because they instantly engage lungs in in becoming more active respiratory system.

Integration of the Cardiovascular and the Respiratory

            Both the respiratory and the circulatory system works closely together. This is to ensure that there is sufficient circulation of oxygen which is required for cellular functions to the body tissues. The heart circulates blood to all parts of the body from the lungs. Carbon dioxide being a metabolic waste product is removed by both body systems. The arteries deliver oxygenated blood to other body parts however arteries largely depend on lungs for oxygen. Alveoli and Bronchioles are the vital parts that transport oxygen to the blood. These structures spread the lungs lobes in the respiratory system. These ensures that gaseous exchange takes place smoothly. These lungs lobes are the main site for the respiratory and cardiovascular interaction.

Rest to exercise extension

            Pulmonary ventilation increases in the rate proportional to the increase of individual workload. However, in some cases, there are instances where ventilation increases more than the workload. The accumulation of lactic acid is said to be the reason behind the increase of ventilation rate.


Lesson 14

First and foremost, personal trainers should do screening and consultation with the new clients. This screening process becomes second nature when you become a personal trainer. It is essentials to first learn how to take the screenings effectively for the clients step by step ensuring that the trainer does not create any risk factors for the client. The trainer should be at apposition to know various questions to ask the clients during their consultation appointment and this is the key to successful training. This questions will help a trainer to identify the major risks factors if any. It is always recommendable that new client gets clearance from the physician before engaging in any exercise program. This apparently ensures that no client with a significant disease should be allowed to go the intensive exercise.

Information should be passed to the new client right up front and the all the answers after the screening sessions are strict and confidential. This is parts of the trainer’s codes of conduct to ensure that there is confidentiality. However, it is the responsibility of the professional trainer to answer all the questions in a specific and honest way as possible. This is because the more the trainer know the less the clients experience injury and then they are likely to have the positive results.

A trainer may impose a question to a client like if the client has any disease. This is as part of health risk assessment this question allows the trainer to gather a specific information about the medical history of the client as well as the general lifestyle behavior risks of the client.

Permanent and non-permanent variations are generally viewed as not the measurement of the physical fitness or performance of a client but it helps the trainer to design an ultimate exercise program. The trainer should, however, screen the variables and get the chance to know if the client is fully fit to undertake the exercise.

Lesson 14

Stage 1



Counselling and objectives

Fittest  assessment

Guidelines for developing an exercise program

Encouraging and motivating others towards improving their overall fitness and health.

Develop distinctive awareness of your physical health.

Know the benefits of fitness, and the health risks of unfitness.

Confidentiality and professional dedication and maintaining personal integrity standards for best practice.

Establish attainable goals and maintain accountability.

Give yourself the opportunity to experience the benefits of exercise and improved fitness.

Desire to ensures others realize their health and fitness goals through flexibility, resistance exercise and appropriate cardiovascular..

Increase your self-awareness and self-confidence in any fitness environment.

Success requires commitment and patience is essential.

August 04, 2023


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