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Crohn's disease is an irritating illness that affects the small and large intestines, but it can also affect other parts of the body's digestive system. Burrill Crohn's disease was named after an American gastroenterologist who first described it in 1932. Crohn's disease is also known as an irritating bowel disease that affects the gastrointestinal tract of the body system. Some descriptions of the disorder include an infectious disease that causes thickening and scarring of the intestinal walls, resulting in congestion in most cases. Crohn's is a disease associated with inflammation of the ileum, causing diarrhea, weight loss, and abdominal cramping. Crohn's disease can disturb particular sections of the digestive system from the anus upwards to the month. In some cases, the infection can affect some patch of the gastrointestinal tract while excluding other parts which remain entirely untouched.
Despite the intensive research by different medical research centres none of the findings has pinpointed out the real cause of the disease. There is some little evidence of the cause of the illness that circulates around environment, genetic, immunological and infectious factors. Different research also indicates that stress and diet may motivate the disease to some extent but not reliable. The gastrointestinal tract contains different bacteria's which are harmless, a good number of them aid in the digestion process. The immune system of the body is responsible for killing any foreign substance such as microorganism fungi, viruses, and bacteria's in the normal function of the body, the harmless microorganism in the intestine are protected from attacks by the immune system. In this case, the safe bacteria's are mistakenly attacked as they are seen by the body immune system as harmful materials. The body cells move out of the blood to the intestine and produce irritation. The tenderness does not end bringing about the chronic inflammation, thickening of the pipe and at long last causing patient signs. Genetic is also a cause of the Crohn's disease as it tends to run in the families lineage and there is a high likelihood that if one member of the family is suffering from the disease, other family members have a high proportion of developing the illness. In addition, the environment is also a cause of the disease. The condition persists mostly in the developed nations compared to the weak states and in particular the urban areas and the northern climatic "What are ("Crohn's and colitis")
The Crohn's disease is as a result of another immune inflammatory reaction in the intestinal walls. Research indicates that the hypersensitivity reaction involved is known as type IV reaction. Delayed hypersensitivity reaction is brought about by the mononuclear leukocytes. The word delayed is used to differentiate between a secondary cellular response and an immediate hypersensitivity feedback. The product mediated by monocytes and T cell rather than antibodies (Abramson). In Crohn's disease, there is predominantly a T helper cell type 1 which is accompanied by the high production of interferon-gamma and interleukin (L)-12. Which led to an increased synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines, comprising of IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-16, and tumor necrosis factor alpha following the influx of unknown irritation cells into the mucosa. The cytokines led to tissue damage either indirectly or directly by facilitating the production growth factors and metalloproteinase (Abramson)
The Crohn's disease has different sign and symptoms that indicate that a patient is suffering from the disease. The Crohn's disease signs differ in some cases and can range from severe to mild. The symptoms may vary with time and from person to person based on which part of the gastrointestinal tract is irritated. There other sign that are general to the Crohn's disease. The symptoms comprise of severe diarrhoea, weight loss, reduction in the body energy, and abdominal pain with cramps, loss of appetite, fever. Others include; fewer blood cells, small tears in the anus, and anaemia. In most cases, pain beings within a short period of one hour after eating which concentrates around the navel, lower right abdomen or both. Bloating and swelling throughout the abdomen is associated with Crohn's illness, and it is as a result of the diet that someone takes in. swelling is also another sign which is accompanied by extreme fever, redness of the skin, or tenderness. As mention early the disease affect different parts of the GI and each of this part has its own specific symptoms and sign. If the Crohn's is on the right side of the colon symptoms, span from diarrhoea, cramps and if the illness is situated on the left side of the colon sign are blood in the stool. Symptoms of the Crohn's disease on the small intestine include weight loss, diarrhoea, and cramps. In most case, a person suffering from the bowel Crohn's will experience constipation rather than having diarrhoea. Patients suffering from the Crohn's of the duodenum and stomach will not experience any symptoms apart from vomiting and nausea. In general, a patient suffering from Crohn's of the stomach may lose weight as most of them will avoid eating to shun voting. In additional the indication of the Crohn's disease on the appendix, oesophagus and the mouth constitute of, pain behind the breastbone while taking in food due to the sore in the mouth and trouble when swallowing food (Marcin 1-2).
No single method has been discovered for diagnosing of the Crohn's disease. The sign and symptoms of the disease vary from one person to the next. Making correct detection of the disease can take a long time than expected. Most of the doctors depend on the medical history of the patient carry out a full physical examination, blood test, and stool test. The analysis is fundamental as it assists in ruling out the disease but in the case where the doctor suspects the Crohn's infections other test are administered. A blood test is critical for the detection of the Crohn's illness. Doctors check for any sign of antibodies or epidemic in the blood system if there is an increase in the level of platelets or white blood cell in the blood it is a show of inflammation or infection in the body. A stool test is another way that is used to detect Crohn's disease. Sign of blood in the stool is a sign of a digestive problem such as the Crohn's syndrome. The stool is examined for abnormalities in the laboratory. Imaging scanning is also crucial in the diagnosing the disorder. Image test includes of x-rays, computed tomography scans, magnetic resonance imaging this allows the observation of the digestive tract from the outside. Crohn's disease can also be diagnosed through the endoscope which is a thin flexible tube with a camera on end. The machine is inserted through the rectum to view the inner walls of the colon. The mechanism is critical as it can be used to carry out various type of endoscopy including the sigmoidoscopy or sigmoidoscopy. Another additional way to detect the disease includes the physical examination for any sign of bloating in the abdomen. A biopsy is also applicable in detection in which the sample of the digestive tissue is collected for testing. Lastly, capsule endoscopy can also be used to diagnose Crohn's diseases when other tests are not working (Rogers).
With no specific cause of the Crohn's disease observation of particular measures can be useful in avoiding the sickness. Some of the action to be taken for prevention of the disease includes the following; preventing troublesome foods that cause stomach problems, maintain a food diary track on different diet being eaten. Some of the conventional food that makes the sign increase includes carbohydrates, and low fiber food among other. Limit the use of dairy products such as lactose and milk, and increase the fiber contained in the diet as it helps keep the digestive system flowing and regulated. Also, there should be a rise in the intake of water for the intestine to work in the right manner, as well as taking into consideration supplement foods that increase vitamins and nutrients in the body. Management of stress is also essential to impede the infection, in most case anxiety and stress can trigger flare-ups in the stomach. Improvement in the lifestyle can even make a difference in the inhibiting the disease. Although medical experts are yet to know the actual cause of the Crohn's disease a change in dietary and lifestyle can help in the prevention (Rogers).
Currently, there is no cure for the Crohn's disease, and no treatment works for every patient. Medical treatment aims to reduce the irritation that triggers the sign and symptoms, as well as improving long-term prognosis by reducing complications. The choice of medications depends on the disease location, severity, and associated complications. Application of the anti-inflammatory medicines that decrease the intestinal irritation, and joint inflammation. A different anti-inflammatory that can be applied to a patient includes the five aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), corticosteroids, and antibiotics such as metronidazole, and ciprofloxacin. Another treatment is through the 5-ASA (mesalamine) oral medication which is similar to aspirin. Corticosteroids can also apply in the treatment of patients with severe Crohn's disease. At a times surgery may be recommended in the treatment of the disease. Maintaining remission is also a way of treatment whereby the patient chose either to use or not to use medication when the symptom is mild. Complication of the disease includes; obstruction and performance of the small colon, abscesses, fistulae, and intestinal bleeding (Wu).
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"What are Crohn's and colitis."what is Crohn's disease, https://www.med.unc.edu/gi/faculty-staff-website/patient-education/patient-education/10BiCrohn'ssOverview.pdf.
Abramson, S. "Medscape." Delayed hypersensitivity reactions, 2015. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/136118-overview
Marcin, J. "Healthline." Crohn's's Disease: Symptoms to watch out for, 2017, pp 1-2. https://www.healthline.com/health/Crohn'ss-disease/symptoms-trouble#other-symptoms7.
Rogers, G. "Healthline." Tests for Crohn's disease, 2016. https://www.healthline.com/health/Crohn'ss-disease/tests#overview1
Wu, G. "MedicineNet." Crohn's disease,2017. https://www.medicinenet.com/Crohn'ss_disease/article.htm
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