Effects of Distraction Cards and Music Therapy on Children's Pain Relief During Phlebotomy

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The purpose of this study was to look at the benefits of listening to music, distraction cards, and distraction cards plus music on pain relief during phlebotomy in children. The researchers employed a randomized, prospective control experiment to complete the investigation. The chosen sample consisted of youngsters aged 7 to 12 years who required blood tests. The kids were then divided into four groups. The groupings comprised those designated as music, distraction cards, distraction cards plus music, and controls. The children's pain levels were then examined and reported by observers and their parents before and after the operations. The children were also allowed to self-report using the Wong-Baker FACES. The Children’s fear Scale was also used to assess the anxiety levels of the children. The result found no significant differences between the different groups as they were classified and reported through observers, self, and parents. Additionally, the researchers observed no significant difference between the groups regarding the anxiety levels of the children as reported by their parents and observers. Finally, the authors concluded that despite observing anxiety and pain in all the three methods used, there was no significant statistics on the observed differences.


The article has a properly laid out introduction which also serves to provide the paper background. In the introduction, the author provides a relevant definition which helps the readers to understand the terms used in the research. This is particularly important because it allows the readers to acquaint themselves with the topic of discussion. Furthermore, the author provides the background of their research by explaining the current methods which are used in providing support for children going through pain during different surgical procedures. The author recognizes that while music and use of distraction cards are currently used to support children during surgical procedures, no proper comparison has ever been made on these elements to determine which one is the most effective in relieving pain and anxiety among children. This is important in this research because it provides the basis of the research problem and the subsequent research objectives, research questions, and study hypothesis. However, while the paper properly lays out the research aims, it fails to explicitly provide the objectives of the study. This is particularly important because lack of research objectives makes the connection between different parts of the research more difficult. However, the hypotheses of the study are provided, and this helped in conducting and controlling the research.

The paper lacks proper literature review. A literature review is important because it lays the foundation of previous research on the topic and helps to determine gaps in knowledge. By not having proper literature review, this research paper has not properly established gaps in the literature which it sets out to fulfill. Furthermore, it fails to anchor the research in a proper theoretical framework.

The paper has a well-structured research methodology. The research has well-defined research design; the samples are well defined, and data collection methods properly described. The authors sought the approval of the committee of Balikesir University Balikesir Medical Faculty in Turkey. This is important because it increases the ethical scores of the study and ability of the researchers to adhere to established ethical considerations in conducting scientific research. Children are one of the vulnerable groups which researchers must be wary of while conducting research which involves them. The failure to explicitly express whether the consent of the appropriate authorities was obtained or not makes could have compromised the reliability and ethical considerations of the paper. The use of independent and properly trained nurses in this study was important because this helped to remove any possible bias. This makes the findings more reliable and valid.

The data analysis section is also well laid out. The use of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyses the results of the study. Also, the use of such computer-based data analysis tools was important for this study because it increased the accuracy of the findings and as well as the conclusions deduced from the study. The results of the study are well laid out and in a table which makes it easier to understand. The use of visuals such as tables as has been used in this article enables the readers to easily understand the results and possible deductions form the study at a glance.

The author shave also provided an in-depth discussion of the results. The authors have used literature to make sense of their studies. Different studies from different previous authors have all been used to put the results obtained from the study into perspective. This has enabled the authors to determine any similarity or deviations from previous findings and in the process contributed to the existing knowledge.

Finally, the authors have provided a conclusion for their study by reiterating the findings of their study. The authors concluded that while it is true that music and distortion cards can significantly reduce the level of pain and anxiety in children during phlebotomy, there is no significant difference in the level of their respective effectiveness. Finally, by declaring that they do not have any interest to declare with regards to their study, the authors made the results of this study more reliable, valid, and applicable without biasness.


Aydin, D., & Sahiner, N. C. (2017). Effects of music therapy and distraction cards on pain relief during phlebotomy in children. Applied Nursing Research, 33, 164-168.

May 10, 2023

Education Family



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Study Research Children

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