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Many debates around the world have been overshadowed by substantive discussion over the criteria for deciding what “smart” is. The term's meaning is contextual rather than factual. Before making a decision, some considerations must be considered. People's cognitive skills, vision, and judgment are shaped by their life experiences. The academic paper evaluates the structure for comprehending smartness and draws on Sir Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein's theoretical achievements. This paper contends that “smartness” is subjective and can only be exemplified by assertions that leave no room for doubt.

The physicist went to Cambridge University to study. The closure of the institution in 1665 as a result of the plague, made Newton engage in intensive mathematical brainstorming at the age of twenty-three (Pepper 253). Newton conducted series of experiments to get answers to unclear natural events in the universe. Buoyed by his dreams, Newton decided to study the universe. One day, while Newton was in the backyard, an apple fell from a tree prompting insatiable desire to understand the reasons for the phenomenon. The falling apple became the foundation for his masterwork. He christened his work as the “Philosophiae Natural Principia Mathematica” (Robinson 118) According to Newton, gravity exists and acts in line with the law. Further, he contended that the force of gravity is always present. The force acts on all nearby objects and that the bigger the mass, the stronger it’s tug. Analyzed by Newton, the force of gravity decreased with the distance between objects. The attraction becomes weakened. The Principia mathematical explanation of the relationship appeared extremely handy and simple. Newton used equations the reasons why the celestial bodies stay in their orbits around the earth.

Isaac Newton made a significant contribution to the study of science. Indeed, nobody before the scientist’s invention knew the term gravity. The discovery was a significant milestone in comprehending the world and the laws governing it. Landing on the moon by astronauts applies the principles of Isaac Newton (Robinson 99). Deriving meanings from everyday observations of gravity in the heavens and on the earth precisely applies Newton’s theory. However, is essential to point out that Newton could only describe gravity but failed to ascertain how it operates scientifically. An agent which is constant according to the laws causes gravity. Newton could not explain it (Motz and Weaver 432). He consequently left his readers to consider whether the agent is immaterial or material.

Albert Einstein

In 1915, the scientist made a significant breakthrough in explaining the cause of gravity. Einstein had no experimental precursors before this milestone. He posited that gravity was not entirely a force. Developed by Einstein, the General Relativity theory offered great insight into the force of gravity. According to the theory of General Relativity developed by Einstein, gravity is complex (Pepper 254). The force is a natural consequence of a body’s influence on space. In the course of his analysis, Einstein concurred with Newton that apace has dimensions including height, width, and length. Matter can fill the space or not according to the perspective of Einstein. However, Newton did not agree with the idea that objects in space affect it, but Einstein did. He explained that mass could push space, pull it, and cause it to bend (Robinson 47). Thus, gravity was just a natural result of a mass’s existence in space. Invented by Newton, the understanding of the force of gravity was perfected by Einstein.

The theory of Einstein revealed glaring inconsistencies in Newton’s postulation of gravity. For instance, Einstein disputed that idea that gravity was an instantaneous or a constant force. In Newton’s experiment, the outcome suggested that change of mass at one point would be detected all over the universe (Motz and Weaver 189). According to Einstein, this assertion was a fallacy. The scientist argued that if the sun disappears abruptly, the signal for the planets to cease orbiting will take some time to travel. Consequently, any such signal would take much time to get to Pluto which is the furthest planet than it would Mars (Motz and Weaver 149). For example, Einstein showed that when a stone is thrown into a pool of water, the mass changes which results in ripples in space. The ripple travels out from the source in all directions at high speed. The observation was that as the mass moves along, the ripple stretches and squeezes space (Pepper 254). The disturbance is referred to as a gravitational wave. Working tirelessly, Einstein disapproved some Newton’s postulations because his theory of General Relativity explains. The explanations cover all that Newton failed to clarify in his theorization. In summing up his work, Einstein said that he had no doubt the correctness of the whole system.

In conclusion, the “smartest” on between Newton and Einstein can be judged from the scientific contributions delineated above. This paper holds that “smartness” is relative and can only be epitomized by arguments that raise no further doubts. As a result, Einstein is “smarter” than Newton because his arguments do not solicit further questions. The summation of General Relativity is that there is no doubt about the correctness of the whole system

Works cited

Motz, Lloyd, and Jefferson Hane Weaver. The Concepts of Science: From Newton to Einstein. Springer, 2013.

Pepper, Robert S. “Thinking About Our Work: Freud, Newton, and Einstein—Strange Bedfellows Indeed.” Group, vol. 40, no. 3, 2016, pp. 251–54. JSTOR, doi:10.13186/group.40.3.0251.

Robinson, Andrew. Einstein: A Hundred Years of Relativity. Princeton University Press, 2015.

July 24, 2021

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