Evolution and Natural Selection

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Evolution is the regular change of something that modifications into different and more complicated form; evolution is mostly and famously put in use since it includes the process of organisms becomes greater cultured over time in reaction to its surrounding.
The greatestcommonidea of by what capability life is reached its latest kingdom is evolution, and natural selection initiatives evolution as organic mechanism. The theory of evolution is preferred with the aid of many scientists such as Darwin who explains the phenomena extensively in nature which is accepted as factual. The notion of evolution has faced a lot of challenges with the religious beliefs being the important challenger since they feel it is against the biblical creation.
From the bible its evidence that, religious people have a different view of evolution that contradicts the theories that have been brought forward by a scientist. They believe that the divine one the only who has the power to create human beings and other earthly creatures that exist unlike the theory of evolution.

Why Evolution Is True

To understand how a fossil is formed and decay rates of different fossils. Distinct fossils that are linked to changes in evolution where a majority of the fossils are found. There are many steps to be followed for one to make a fossil; land dwellers are also found in the water like animal and plant remains which as well are seen in water although the case of this kind is rare. In most extraordinary circumstances, remain of the land-dwelling plants and animals end up at the bottom of the of water bodies that which is the cause of the reason as to why most of the fossils are maritime organs (Darwin, 1859). The hard parts of the animals and plants under the marine are likely to be found hence makes it difficult to explore information of the fossils indeed, most of the soft parts of the animals and plants make the critical part of the discovery that is needed of the ancient species. By the use of the radiometric dating which helps to determine the decay rates by the geologist. Most of the rocks consist of the radioactive isotopes that degenerate at different rates therefor the technique that allows approximating the age of the geologic time scale (Dobzhansky & Theodosius, 1973).

The complex species such as Trilobites which were arthropods that are classified regarding spiders and insects. There is need to comprehend how vertebrates which are able to live on land. The evolution of fish to amphibians, they were well-thought-out as tetrapod because they consist of four legs as well as are capable of walking on and can manage on the shallow water, thus shows the similarities to the fish even though they breathe by the help of ribs and neck. The link between reptiles and birds are more same to dinosaurs. These characteristics which share the two types of organisms was a tail which is bony and long, a jaw attached to the teeth as well they way wings separate from fingers.

The exciting part of this relationship to birds is the same bones are webbed together rather than being separate. From the Chinese birds that flew towards other countries such as Turkey show how evolution takes place. The suggestion that natural election will naturally favor the only organism that is capable of flying further unlike those that leap and walks.Whales' pelvis as well their hind legs suggests that they descended from the land-dwelling ancestors (Futuyma & Douglas, 2005).

Scientist understands that evolution is true since, from genetics, records of fossils, geographical shapes of the earth and biology is explained. It's essential to comprehend the reason as to why evolution is true. Therefore, humans get to understand better evolution as well dismisses myths and to know about human origin.

Evolutionarily is right, its evidence from Charles Darwin's theory of evolution that he developed provides proofs about evolution that shows development is proper for example, the genetic changes over a period through the process of mutation. Human beings are believed to have evolved from the ape. The gradual changes in rational creatures such as birds have shown the different from birds to reptiles. On the other hand, evolution is not true. From the biblical readings, it's clear that everything on earth was created by God. Therefore, it contradicts the evolution theories explain how human beings came to be and creatures such as animals, birds, and many more others. Furthermore, many plants have not changed over many years ago as the beliefs of evolution; it shows how evolution is not true because if there is evolution then more of the trees, animals, and birds would have changed to different creatures (Endler &John, 1986)

Philosophical Reflections

There is evolvement of rational science in the societies; there are more scientific advances in our community and how people view themselves and how they view the world at large. It's clear that genes and alleles influence intelligence, a tendency towards violence and sexual direction.

In most cases, the philosophy of evolution addresses the interesting issues. Most of the philosophers come to an understanding that creationism has less evidence unlike that of evolution. There is a general agreement that creationism should not be taught in schools, but on the other hand, they lack a genuine reason as to why they should agree to the same. For example, there is lack of the criteria of science due to the foundation of religion. Proposers are being accused of applying much of the naive adaptationism and basing on problematic biases and sexist (Van &Leigh, 1973).

Another critical part is heredity and heritability. Evolution is always taken around heritable fluctuations over a period. These traits can be transferred from one generation to one another. Genes are unquestionable instead they are seen to be not enough to some people, who want to deliberate the spectacles which include cultural and learning transmission, biological inheritance and epigenetic that are well heritable.

Heritability has caused confusion since it's a technical term within the theory of evolution as well to comprehend the term. Classically it's thought in terms of phenotype and genotype differences in which phenotypes are not heritable unlike the genotype which are heritable. For us to accept this difference, we must first know the distinction between the acquired traits and innate characteristics. For the heredity to take apart of evolution, there is a reason as to why there is need to allow for a more evolution theory which is general (Dobzhansky & Theodosius, 1973).

Another central part of biological individuality that has frolicked significant role in arguments over the origin of the species. Many philosophers of biology have maintained that species are individually constructed. Species are best known as the units of evolution in that members of organisms have uniform evolvement (Darwin, 1859).

Theological Reflections

From the theory of creation, it's believed that nature is theological, from the Christian theory; God is the creator of the world. Therefore, anything that exists on earth was due to the divine creator that they live. Christian theology is mainly based on the scripture which guides about the human creation. From my argument, it's concrete that Christian ideas which evolve provide a true God's creation. The theory of Darwin's theory about evolution is nearer to the biblical look out of how God created the world and all creators on it (Van &Leigh, 1973).

The theological contradicts the idea of the evolution therefore its regarded as false because the belief of God as the creator does not rhyme with the scientific theories.

For the case of natural theologians, we derive the case from Noah's ark which explained through the religion how the animals came into existence. It proves that many of the animals were required to cross the ocean so for them to reach their new destination. It's not easy to explain how these creatures survived, how they could fit, how they could eat more especially the carnivore for six weeks in the ark before reaching to their destination. From the theory of Louis A. which says animals did not change, from many fossils that were discovered though the time disapproves the theory (Van &Leigh, 1973).

Scientific Understanding of Evolution

Placental and marsupial mammals are distinct in different regions and are different animals, but some show similar behaviors and features. The idea of convergent evolution comes about that explains the above claim. All three theory of evolution that works together with convergent evolution that acts as evidence, those animals can be in different places, but they possess the related living ability (Futuyma & Douglas, 2005). The same applies to the placental and marsupials that share features even though they are different animals. Many descendants are as a result of the collective ancestors. Many of the species of animals have survived many conditions due to natural selection; this helps them to adapt their environment (Darwin, 1859).

Natural selection is the reason behind the happening of the adaptation. For example, a mouse has many colors such as the light shade and the dark shade. The idea behind this case is to determine the variability of the mice of the same population if they require different coat shades for their characters to change. Heritability in that some of the distinction may need gene changes. For this case there is no distinct genetics, the light or dark mice will have more chances of survival if they are placed in their respective environment while for those that are not adaptive to the environment are not be able to be passed to the next generation.The last thing to happen is Genetic Variation, for the mice to survive, they need to be disguised to produce or affect the possibility of having progenies (Van &Leigh, 1973).

As well the genetic records give evidence for the evolution, to be specified through the dead genes and atavisms. Most of the species consist of the atavisms that are periodic forms of organs that actually will be vital to in an antecedentkind. The existence of tail identical in a human provides a proof that hereditary history separate of what is known to be recent humantraits (Futuyma & Douglas, 2005).Scientifically human beings consist of 2000 pseudogenes that have no function. The dead cells prove the idea of evolution in that in some species they are useful, unlike other species.

Sociological Reflections

Evolution is all about the sociobiological descriptions, it generally about the interaction on the genes and culture. Culture can lead to a change in self-codes of creatures; social turn affects the way organisms, people and animals behave.

Philosophers and scientists described evolution as a theory and facts.

There was biographical evidence from Darwin theory, and many who could go against the theory were not able to since there was concrete evidence. Since many creationists could not go against the theory, they could not believe the existent of those theories.

The reason as to why male doesn't survive as females are due to sexual dimorphisms which are the characteristics that men use to acquire the attention of the feminine species. It was necessary to carry out the sexual selection that raises the chances of getting companion (Van &Leigh, 1973). It provides the opportunity for the male to choose a female and another way round. Strategies are different in which sexes chum because they possess a distinct number of gametes. Thus it means male eggs are not those much worthy of the female eggs, but they can produce more young ones. This tactic is crucial because male invest their sperm on offspring; it's very different from the female who take care of their young ones which is also a way of spending. For in case the number of males reduces due to various reasons such as death, and then it will lead to a decrease of the natural fitness of the generation (Futuyma & Douglas, 2005).Evidently, evolution tips to maladaptive evolution which may end up causing the momentous reduction of the fitness.

The different evolutionary group can't reproduce; this is because that many of the ancestors spread into similar but different classes this due to the idea of Biological Species Concept that explains how many different species form speciation. This was actually discovered by Theodosius and Ernst. The class of population that's able to interbreed is called Biological Species happens when the dominant species are spread in which their appearance does not explain their class.

The occurrence of the evolution through natural selection with the genes and other cultural similarities of the transfer of genetics as well the cultural evolution does not necessarily use genetic fitness maximum (Darwin, 1859). New sociological theories of evolution grip promise of assimilating macro process and micro, providing the complication and diversity in human modification integration the knowledge of action and arrangement as well linking sociology to biology (Van &Leigh, 1973).


In conclusion, the knowledge of evolution has led to more cultural opposition, and no one can deny it's true. It's evident in the scientific understanding of the genetics, relative biology and the fossil records that act as an evidence of the scientific findings. From the theories that are learned, have proven many of the biographical evidence that understanding many different classes was as well dispersed and should bet the most thing to consider when going through the clue of natural selection hence the knowledge of how whales, humans, and many other different species exist and their characteristics that have evolved. Despite the challenges from the biblical view, there is much concrete evidence to prove that evolution is true. Therefore it requires one to go through many articles from the scientific view, theories, and many more others articles that analyses the process of evolution with the supporting evidence.


Darwin, Charles R., 1859, The Origin of Species using Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, first edition, London: JohnMurray.

Dobzhansky, Theodosius, 1973, "Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution," American Biology Teacher, 35(3): 125–129. doi:10.2307/4444260

Futuyma, Douglas J., 2005, Evolution, Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.

Endler, John, 1986, Natural Selection in the Wild, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Van Valen, Leigh, 1973, "Book Review: Festschrift for George Gaylord Simpson" Science, 180(4085): 488. doi:10.1126/science.180.4085.486

September 11, 2021




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