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Exercise and nutrition significance on stress

Exercise decreases stress in two ways: it increases the development of neurohormones such as noradrenaline, which enhances cognition, behavior, and cognitive functioning; and it improves learning, mood, and cognitive functioning. Noradrenaline raises the heart rate, which increases the size of the hippocampus. The hippocampus is an important part of the brain for learning; increasing its size ensures information acquisition and assimilation of new data. Exercise increases one's breathing rate, stimulating the supply of oxygen to all body parts and the brain. The circulation of oxygen promotes the optimal functioning of body cells, resulting in the effective execution of activities. Through physical exercise, heart rate increases resulting in the production of cytokines, which are a regulator of systemic inflammation. Cytokines, specifically the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) confine receptors on the cells that are infected and stimulates an antiviral response; which results in the death of the infected cells, preventing them from spreading. TNF-a also facilitates circulation of leucocytes through adjacent capillaries to the infected cells. Leukocytes play a role in preventing further infection of cells.
The body has its defense system that automatically controls stress and brain inflammation. Microglia is one of the brain's defense system located throughout the spinal cord and the brain. Microglia contains potassium channels that detect even minute pathogens. The presence of potassium channels in microglia enables them to scavenge the central nervous system agents that are infectious, plagues, damaged synapses, and neurons. Infections may not fully attack the brain since the endothelial cells, referred to as blood-brain barrier prevents the infections from passing through. Microglia destroys the germs and pathogens realized and quickly reduce inflammation.
The brain prepares one for survival as soon as it realizes one is under stress. During a stressful situation, the brain sends impulses to the adrenal glands via the spinal cord. The pulses stimulate the production of adrenaline hormone. Adrenaline causes increase in heart rate, blood pressure and increase sugar levels in the blood. Hypothalamus part of the brain also sends impulses to the pituitary glands which initiates the production of cortisol by the adrenal cortex. Cortisol is a stress hormone that boosts blood sugar and blood pressure to curb stress. By keeping up the blood sugar levels, increased heart rate, and blood pressure, the brain achieves its role of ensuring all body muscles work at the peak of their ability and the mind remains super-alert. Optimum levels of cortisol boost the brain's immunity system thus offering protection against infections that would probably lead to brain inflammation.
To get started, one should identify an exercise that he or she is comfortable to partake. One could, therefore, consider simple exercises such as walking race and jogging, which act as anti-inflammatory agents. Simple tasks are advantageous for one does not necessarily need to go to the gymnasium; instead, he or she requires coming up with a daily routine. Dedication of 20 minutes time for exercise in a day is enough to perform the simple tasks. These activities do not require specific geographical areas for performance; one can race or jog within the surrounding environment.
Simple tasks do not require exorbitant expenses. Running, for example only requires one's dedication, light clothes, and comfortable shoes to enable one perform the exercise with ease. Light attires are deemed appropriate for that kind of activity. They are also affordable. Despite situations of getting involved in business errands, one can still maintain the moderate exercise routine; before laying to rest, one can jog and walk around the room for 20 minutes.
Frequent engagement in physical activity helps curb depression in many ways. Exercise stimulates the production of feel-good hormones such as endorphins and serotonin. Endorphins stimulate positive feeling thus reducing stress and depression (Prinz, Tay, and S). Serotonin regulates happiness, anxiety, and moods. Through exercise, the chemical is released and plays a role in maintaining recovery from depression.
During exercise, the body temperatures increase stimulating the release of sweat by the sweat glands. By increasing bodily temperatures, there is a significant reduction of depression. As the body's temperature rises, cooling mechanisms are stimulated to bring the body to normal temperature levels from the skin to the brain. Sweating being one of the cooling devices is propagated, and as the body gets back to its normal levels of temperature, depression reduces as well (Dimitrov, Hulteng, and Hong). It is through regular exercises that there is a reduction of depression; because there is a decrease in immune system chemicals which worsen depression. An example of such substances is inflammatory cytokines. Inflammatory cytokines are a type of molecule discharged from immune cells like macrophages and helper T cells. The cells from which inflammatory cytokines originate from, promote cell inflammation. Production of excess inflammatory cytokines, therefore, propagates depression. (Yirmiya et al.)

Conclusion
It is possible to reverse adverse effects of stress to the brain cells during the acute stage. When one suffers depression and stress at most instances, health problems are likely to arise that which might be out of control. Chronic stress can, therefore, suppress one's immunity system leading to rewiring of the brain making one vulnerable to depression.

Works Cited
Dimitrov, Stoyan, Elaine Hulteng, and Suzi Hong. "Inflammation and Exercise: Inhibition of Monocytic Intracellular Tnf Production by Acute Exercise Via Β2-Adrenergic Activation." Brain Behavior and Immunity. 61 (2017): 60-68. Print.
Prinz, M, T L. Tay, Y Wolf, and S Jung. "Microglia: Unique and Common Features with Other Tissue Macrophages." Acta Neuropathologica. 128.3 (2014): 319-331. Print.
Yirmiya, R, Y Pollak, M Morag, A reichenberg, O Barak, R Avitsur, Y Shavit, H Ovadia, J Weidenfeld, A morag, M E. Newman, and T Pollmächer. "Illness, Cytokines, and Depression." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 917.1 (2000): 478-487. Print.

July 24, 2021

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