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Indian Culture and Art

Fatehpur Sikri is a city located at the northern part of India and in the western region of the District of Agra. It is popularly identified with the Fatehpur Sikri fort. This is also in the state of Uttar Pradesh in the North Eastern part of India. By taking a tour through the historical site; people usually feel the rich cultural history of medieval Mughal India. The place was founded in 1569 by Mughal Emperor Akbar, and it is one of the most visited spots in India. Fatehpur Sikri is now known as one of the best architectural legacy Emperor Akbar left behind since it consists of many beautiful palaces, mosques, and halls and it hosts monuments such as Buland Darwaza, Diwan-i-Khas- Hall, Panch Maha and Tomb of Salim Chist among others .
Jahangir
Jahangir originally known as Mirza Nur-ud-din Beig Mohammad Khan Salim, was the fourth Mughal Emperor who ruled from 1605 until the time of his death in 1627. He was born in 1569. He boldly rebelled against his father but later on reconciled. During his reign, the Emperor continued to be a state of war geared to forceful conquering and expansion. Dazzling Mughal Art is of the paintings are used to portray the victory of his Emperor. Besides, his reign was significantly noted for its for its tremendous art work. For example, when Itimad-ud-daulah, his chief minister passed on in 1622, Nur Jahan, his powere daughter commissioned the construction of his exquisite tomb at Agra .
Ravi Varma
Ravi Varma is among the celebrated painters and artist in Indian and he is considered as one of the greatest painters in the Indian art history . He is commonly known for his influence on the Indian painters’ future generation. Shakuntala is the work of art terming or commonly associated with his names.
Malwa
Is a historical province and a physiographic region of the west central of India made up of large central and western Madhya Pradesh states as well as part of the southeastern Rajasthan and the northern part Maharashtra states. The term is strictly confined to the hilly tableland bordered by the Vindhya Range towards the southern part .
Velha Goa
Velha Goa is a big historical city within the district of northern part of Goa. The city was built by Bijapur Sultanate back in the 15th century and preserved as the Portuguese capital city. Basilica of Bom Jesus is the commonly known work of art Illustrating Velha Goa .
Ragamala
The term Ragamala as translated from Sanskrit as a garland of raga is referred to the series of painting portraying a collection of musical melodies known as ragas. It major root term, the raga means mood, color, and delight. The portrayal of these moods was a more of favored subject in the painting of the Indian court. The Charming Rajasthani artwork illustrates clearly the term . Ragamala.
Tirthankara
Tirthankara which is also referred to as Jina in Janaism is a savior has finally succeeded in passing over the rebirth stream of life and has actually made a clear way for other to see and follow to the latter . Mahavira of the 16th century BCE was the last Tirthankara to exist. Rishabhanatha is the art work illustrating the term.
Discuss the evolution of gardens under the Mughals. What kind of gardens did they have? What is the religious symbolism of the garden? How is this expressed in the materials and lay out?
Mhugal gardens’ evolution especially its design is basically derived from the medieval Islamic garden. The gardens underwent remarkable evolution . For first, the celebrated Mughal garden owned by Kashmir was owed by their grandeur basically to the Emperor of Jahangir who indeed have undoubted love for Kashmir as well as his only son Shah . Jahangir was very responsible and accountable for the selection of the garden site and also maneuvering it including the surrounding land so as to make it actually suit the expectation or requirements of the paradise tradition garden. Even though Mhugal did not in any way changed from the initial concept or form of what the garden should actually be, but their main challenge of exploiting the selected site including the abundance of the natural resources such as water maximally remained holding. This marked a major revolution point of the garden .
In addition, the garden sites that were chosen were invariably at the mountain foot, especially at around the places that would have some water points perhaps in form of flowing streams or whirling springs. This kind feature eventually evolved into completely terraced layout of garden . Despite the big challenges that were as a result of the existing mountain terrains, the aesthetic and engineering skills of Mhugal led to the further evolution of Gardens under Mhugal through assisting with exploitation of the dominating natural resources including the abundance of water resources and the naturally beautiful landscape up to their maximum potentials, this led to the achievement of the significantly unparalleled altitude of perfection of the gardens .
Still as part of the evolution, nearly all the most popular Mughal gardens within Kashmir except in Verinag conforms to a similar pattern of having one main central water channel that is only sourced from the natural springs and stream running across the gardens . In addition, the channel forming the main central axis of the Mhugal gardens was later on enhanced further by the avenue of chinar trees or poplars, this giving forming part of the evolution that Mhugal gardens went through. In fact, there was either one or more pavilions or baradaris with a single central opening point known as dalan that were usually placed on the water channels especially within the garden borders . The water channels flowed or cascaded down the stream from a single terrace to the other in forms of falls or chadars where they would fill up large water tank used for storing water for sole purpose of watering or irrigating the Mhugal garden in period of droughts . Lastly, the water particular from the main and central channel would join the main water body, thus leaving the garden when in good condition for utilization .
There are two major kinds of Mhugal gardens, that is, the park closures that surround the entire principle monumental structure-like for example the Mhugal tomb which may include the Taj Garden at Agra . In the other kind of Mhugal garden, there is no such principle monumental structure and this may include gardens like the Nishat garden situated at the Srinagar, Kashmir. For the gardens in the enclosure surrounding such as the Taj Garden, the building of the tomb is usually placed at the most or furthest end of the garden . In fact, the tomb garden including the subsidiary building also usually enclosed by a very broad wall most with an octagonal previlions at each of the garden ends and also the monumental entrance point towards the center of the southern side . An as part of evolution of the gardens, during the time when the Emperor was constructing the Taj, the garden was already filled up with many trees including cypress, fruit trees, flowering trees and palm trees .
To the Indians, the gardens are more of vast mausoleum which are considered as a symbolic replica of the heavenly place of throne of God, which according to the religious culture of the Islamic, gardens are believed to be situated directly, but slightly above the paradise of God and upon which He will sit during the judgment during the big day of resurrection. In other words, to the Indians, Mhugal garden are sacred places which are isolated from their surroundings and tightly enclosed by tall and string walls .
In terms of materials and layout, the Mhugal garden have always been expressed in form of raised hillock at the central part, also reminiscent of the mountain at the center of the garden in a certain cosmological description and it is usually surrounding by pavilion to mark the layout of the garden. As it has been said, strong and high walls are also constructed around the garden so as to help defining its layout.

Bibliography
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August 09, 2021
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CultureWorld

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Asia

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Indian CultureIndia

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