Jobs in Aviation Industry

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With advanced technologies and creativity on the horizon, the aviation industry is one of the fastest developing markets. It faces several problems, such as strong competition, a growing number of emerging entrants, health risks, rising oil prices, extremism, and seasonal fluctuations in the industry. Despite these obstacles, one player has stood the test of time: Singapore Airlines. According to Fortune (2013), Singapore Airlines has outperformed its rivals by steadily its rate of return, winning the most awards in the airline industry, and been named to Fortune's list of most admired firms. One key area that has been crucial in ensuring success of Singapore airline is its human resource. Performance of the company is closely related to its employees, since they interact directly with the clientele. According to Schuler and Jackson (1996), job analysis is a crucial part of human resource which provides guidance and support to all the activities performed. All the information gathered from job analysis is used in coming up with job descriptions, specifications, human resource decision making, human resource policy development, training, setting performance standards, and appraisal. In light of this, job analysis is important to Singapore airlines, since it provides a solid background and direction for its personnel. Having a proper job specification and job description is the perfect combination to be used to achieve the best performance and results from the human resource team. It ensures that qualified persons are hired and their duties are specified. Therefore, job analysis is the cumulative process of searching for data and utilising it using job descriptions and job specification (Bratton & Gold, 2007).

Job Description

Brief overview. In order for the cabin crew staff to perform best, there is need to have a clear and concise definition of the duties and responsibilities that is expected of each and every person.

Tasks. The main task of the cabin crew is to engage with customers so as to ensure that the passengers are comfortable, their safety is assured, and that they are well taken care of. The cabin crew staffs are provided with an on-job training which will provide skills on evacuation, landing, security, first aid, and passenger management. With years of experience and exemplary performance this role leads to promotion and growth through the ranks of senior crew member purser and chief purser.

Duties. The main duties of the cabin crew are in three stages. Before the flight takes off, they are required to have a brief meeting with the pilot to go through their security checklist and weather conditions. They also assist with luggage. During the flight the crew members provide refreshments, check supplies, conduct checks, maintain lavatories, and replenish supplies. Once the plane lands, they monitor the plane and provide assistance to passengers with special needs.

Responsibilities. The cabin crew working hours are inherent on the flight durations and destinations.

Job Specification

Job specification, on the other hand, is a crucial part of the recruitment process, as it provides information to prospective applicants about the qualifications required.

Knowledge. The cabin crew must have attained age 18 years, have good standard of health, and possess good hearing and eyesight. The crew must also possess a passport which permits unrestricted travel worldwide.

Skills and abilities. Since the cabin crew interacts with the customers, its members must possess excellent communication and customer care skills. They also must be able work well in a team. They should be able to handle difficult situations in a positive manner and be able to accept the flexibility of the working conditions.

Other characteristics. The cabin crews are required to have a strong academic background with at least a diploma or undergraduate in a related course.

Job Design

Job design is the process which ensures that the employees are able to meet organisational requirements and satisfy technological needs and relationships by clearly defining the job content, methodology, and relationships existing (Buchanan, 1979). Poor job design leads to discouraged employees, disorganised workflows, and poor performance. This is an area which should be highlighted so as to improve on team work and maximisation of individual capabilities. This also ensures that resources are fully utilised. It aims at simplifying tasks, compiling tasks, enriching the tasks to be performed, and switching tasks between various employees. Job design is, therefore, a never ending continuous process which goes a long way in ensuring that the staff members at Singapore Airlines are always motivated, satisfied, and have good interpersonal relationships.

Job design has four approaches which form the building blocks and determining factors. The four are design for efficiency, design for motivation, design for safety and health, and design for mental capacity. The four approaches aim at improving performance and working conditions so as to create an enabling environment.

Design for Efficiency

This approach aims at achieving the easiest way possible to perform a task. This ensures that the employees utilise minimal effort and the organisation saves on cost. The employee is then motivated to work and produces a higher output at lower cost and effort.

Design for Motivation

With the increase in employee turnover due to an increase in competitors, there is need to design jobs which motivate employees and utilize their expertise. The jobs need to be designed in such a way that they are satisfying and require skilled personnel. Job performance is much higher if the employees are skilled and enjoy what they do.

Design for Safety and Health

In the airline industry, the cabin crew staff is a key resource. This is because they directly interact with clients. Cabin crew jobs should be designed in such a way that the physical abilities and strength of the personnel are not exceeded. To achieve this, there has been an increasing reliance and development of technology, equipment, and machinery to help reduce physical effort and fatigue.

Design for Mental Capacity

Working in the aviation industry can be taxing both mentally and physically. Jobs should be designed in such a way that the mental abilities are not exceeded so as to reduce level of stress, amount of training required, and increase the performance ability.

Recruitment Strategy and Implementation

With the volume of operations at Singapore airlines, there is need for constant growth of personnel. This is done to be able to meet the demand and grow its business and reputation. In this regard, for the organisation to achieve the best performance, attract the best candidates, and retain its resourceful employees, it has to employ well-planned and managed strategies. It has to develop and implement a well-structured recruitment process. To achieve this, three aspects of personnel recruitment are utilised. They include personnel policies, recruitment traits and behaviours, and recruitment sources. This aims at matching the vacancy characteristics and applicant characteristics.

With the increasing number of employees, there needs to be a policy which will provide guidance and direction. Therefore, the personnel policy is a commitment by all staff towards the adherence to the vision of Singapore airline and towards the success of the company (Legge, 2006). The personnel policy clearly highlights issues to do with best practices, human resource capacity, and compliance to the various laws, social responsibility, and recruitment and retention of employees. Also, the policy helps in standardisation of the processes and uniformity so as to avoid the various individual preferences. In addition, personnel policies enable all employees to know exactly what is expected of them and what they expect from the airline company. This also helps in defining the disciplinary measures available in case of non-compliance to the policies.

The next step is looking for suitable candidates to join Singapore airlines. This is a crucial stage because the performance of the airline is highly dependent on performance of employees. Recruitment sources may be internal or external. Internal sourcing is considered an easier process because the employees’ abilities have been tested and proven. An employee in one role is transferred to another role as a promotion. This tends to encourage the existing employees and shows room for career growth. Other examples of internal recruitment are job rotation, employee references, and employee database. Internal sourcing is the most cost-effective method of acquisition of new employees; however, it discourages new ideas and creativity which could have been gained from new employees. External sourcing is the process of recruitment by acquisition of someone who has not been in the organisation before. They can be sourced from career fairs, schools, recruitment agencies, and mass media. In the recent past, there has been a growth in the staff for hire or outsourced employees. This method has gained praise because it encourages a new pool of employees who bring in new energy and ideas. It also allows and encourages acquisition of competent expertise which is going to steer the organisation forward. This is, however, faced by the challenge that this is costly, consumes more time, and the employees hired lack proven working experience. Upon establishing that the policies match recruitment sources, the recruiter traits and characteristics will be fit for the position. It will result in a perfect match for recruitment.


After the recruitment process has been completed, the selection process is then activated. This process ensures that the best candidate is given an opportunity to serve at Singapore airlines (Ofori & Aryeetey, 2011). According to Gamage (2014), the main purpose of the selection process is to achieve the best candidate who suits the requirements of the job in the most cost-effective way possible. The effectiveness of the selection process will ensure that the candidate is able to perform the task. It is important that the candidate is able to comprehend his/her roles. Selection is based on five stages namely screening applications, getting candidates to take tests, mix and match, checking references and documentation, and, finally, selection of the candidate. The first step of selection is applied to screen applications. This involves comparison of the job analysis and the applications. At this stage, a record is created containing the names, selection criteria, and short list criteria. This is done to check if the candidates who have applied for the position are qualified and are able to meet the specifications and be able to keep track of all applicants. The next step is getting candidates to take tests. There are different types of tests being administered, but that is purely based on the task. The tests include cognitive ability tests, which check reasoning skills, personality tests, which appraise the ability of the client to meet expectations, physical ability tests, which analyse the physical requirements of the task, and job knowledge tests, which review the level at which the candidate can understand. The main aim of these tests is to compare the various candidates’ abilities. The tests differ from one job to another based on each jobs’ specifications. Thirdly, there is a “mix and match” stage. At this stage, the candidates’ performance in the first two selection stages is checked and compared to see if it matches the job specification and description. The candidate proceeds to the next stage of the checking the references. Checking references and documentation involves establishing if the documentations are copies of the original documents. Also, it involves seeking for verification from third parties to confirm the candidates’ ability and past experience. Once all this has been verified and confirmed, the best and most suitable candidate is then selected. It is at this stage that an offer is given to the successful candidate. The offer will provide details which will advise on the date to start the contract, terms of employment, and the expectations of the company. It is based on this that the candidate considers if he/she would like to be part of the team. The unsuccessful candidates are then communicated to thanking them for taking time to apply and should there be vacant positions in future they will be considered. Poor selection will lead to an additional cost which will be incurred by the airline.


Singapore airline has been a key player in the aviation industry with good prospects of growth. With implementation of the strategies on this report, Singapore airlines will be able to grow in leaps and bounds. Acquiring qualified personnel, retaining of qualified and performing personnel, and developing sound human resource policies will without a doubt lead to Singapore airline winning even more awards. Also, this will act as a motivating factor to employees so as to yield better results and achieve the goals of the company.


Bratton, J., & Gold, J. G. (2007). Human resource management theory and practice (4th ed.). Palgrave Macmillan.

Buchanan, D. (1979). The development of job design theories and techniques. New York: Praeger Publishers.

Fortune. (2013). World’s most admired companies. Retrieved from

Gamage, A. S. (2014). Recruitment and selection practices in manufacturing SMEs in Japan: An analysis of the link with business performance. Ruhuna Journal of Management and Finance, 1(1), 37-52.

Legge, K. (2006). Human resource management. In S. Ackroyd, R. Batt, P. Thompson, & P. S. Tolbert (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of work and organization (pp. 220-241). New York: Oxford University Press

Ofori, D., & Aryeetey, M. (2011). Recruitment and selection practices in small and medium enterprises. International Journal of Business Administration, 2(3), 45-60.

Schuler, R. S., &Jackson, S. E. (1996) Human resource management: Positioning for the 21st century (6th ed.). St Paul, MN: West Publishing.

December 28, 2022

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