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LGBT Discrimination

For lesbians, homosexuals, bisexuals and transgendered people, LGBT is an initialisation. In the abbreviation, the term "familiar" was recently added to represents a gender that is not heterosexual or cisgender. The word Gay culture was intended to replace LGBT as it was not inclusive of all sexual identities. The aim of LGBT is to recognize and cover cultures which relate to gender and sexuality, including those who are not heterosexual and cisgender. As a result of global attempts to combat their rights, the problem of LGBT has evolved worldwide. Religious leaders, political agencies and scientists opposed the legitimization of same-sex marriages and the recognition of gender diversity. Before the legalization of same-sex marriage in the United States in 2013, the need for the LGBT community was not a priority (Pichler, 2016). Lesbians, gays, bisexuals and transgender have been considered as choices and mental illnesses, and hence they should not qualify to be equated to heterosexuals. A study in 2008 showed 45 percent of the respondents had been discriminated at one point of their life.
LGBT Discrimination in the past
Public acceptance and social discrimination against gays, lesbians, transgender and bisexuals have been high among the American population. According to Herek in 2002, a study in 1965 indicated that 70% of the population did not accept homosexuality and they thought it as harmful to the American culture. LGBT movement has received significant opposition over the years in spite of more gay and transgender coming out publicly. Religion and culture have played a major in blocking acceptance of LGBT in the society and the laws. Lack of laws that protect the interest of the LGBT community has criminalized the existence of lesbians, gays, bisexuals and transgender in the society. Criminalization of LGBT has been taken as the legalization of discrimination against LGBT in the society. Public opinion on LGBT has become more positive over the years but so is the level of discrimination recorded. According to Bowman, Rugg and Marisco (2013), 40% of American still feel that LGBT is wrong. The people who reject the existence of different sexual and gender identities are the ones most likely to discriminate the LGBT people.
Discrimination in schools
Social pressures, bullying and discrimination, have been the norm in many schools. Students who are different, weak or young often find themselves discriminated, regardless of their gender identity or sexual orientation. The school experience has been challenging for LGBT students; they have struggled to integrate let alone make sense of their identities. In schools, discrimination against LGBT students has been immense. These students have reported various forms of discrimination that they face in the school vicinity; the discrimination includes restricted locker room and bathroom access and limited LGBT student participation in extracurricular activities.
According to Guasp (2012), a study done by Cambridge University on 1600 LGBT students shows that more than half of these students experienced discrimination. The School Report (2012) also indicates that half of the LGBT student are never taught anything regarding sexual and gender identity. Discrimination and Bullying based on sexual and gender identity have impacted severely on the aspiration, well-being, and attainment of LGBT students. The exclusion of LGBT studies in the curriculum and non-crimination of the negative message have been a major contributor to low self- esteem among LGBT students (Guasp, Ellison and Satara, 2014).
LGBT students have suffered negative, discriminatory and abusive comments that are meant to profile their differences. Words such as �fagots,� �queer,��gay� and �homo� have been used to refer to LGBT students. Transgenders, gays, lesbian and bisexual student have confirmed that such word are abusive and they make them have low self-esteem. According Blackman (2017), verbal and physical assaults had significant psychological that were reported by interviewed LGBT youths had an enormous psychological impact on them, especially when the authorities did not do anything to prevent them.
Discrimination and alienation of youth go beyond school to their homes when their parents and siblings isolate them once they learn they are LGBT. The majority of LGBT youth speak out about their gender or sexual identity during their teens. Speaking has always come with a risk of alienation and discrimination. The probability of these events happening was much high when LGBT rights were not recognized. Therefore, some parents and siblings were ashamed to associate themselves with LGBT teenagers irrespective of their blood relations. According to Blackman (2017), studies show that 40% of homeless youth were LGBT and 27 of homeless LGBT males run away from home as a result of quarrels over sexuality or gender identity. The majority of LGBT youth discrimination comes from their schoolmates and teachers. According to the student report (2012), awarding of scholarships and student loans have been discriminative against LGBT students compared to their heterosexual counterparts (Blackman, 2017)
Discrimination in Employments
Burns (2011) indicates the results of studies that prove the existence of workplace discrimination against the LGBT employees in the United States. Lesbians, gays, bisexuals and transgender are found to have lower chances of passing an interview than their heterosexual counterparts (Burns, 2011). Human resource companies indicated that chances getting a resume from an LGBT-identified job seeker were far lower than those of straight jobseekers. Transgender employees are the most discriminated Jobseekers among the LGBT. Research by the national center of transgender equality indicates that ninety percent of transgender employees have been discriminated, harassed or mistreated at their workplace. Workplace harassment and discrimination have been reflected in the employment and financial status of the LGBT. Statistics show social-economic inequalities that have been contributed by unemployment and workplace discrimination.
For many years, workplace discrimination has caused job insecurity resulting in high poverty and the wage gap between gay and straight employees. Statistics in the past have shown that older LGBT members are poorer than their heterosexual counterparts. According to Burns (2011), 20 percent of transgender are current or have once been homeless in their life. The social-economic inequality evidenced by these statistics proves the level of discrimination that the LGBT get in the United States. Provision of social welfare and probability of employment have been skewed to favor heterosexual.
Persistent discrimination propagated the growth of a different kind of discrimination known as perceived discrimination. Perceived discrimination is internal, and it is stimulated by case studies of actual discrimination on other LGBT people. Mediation study reports identified perceived discrimination as a cause of depressive symptoms among LGBT females and males. Perceived discrimination was also identified as a cause of suicidal ideation, self-harm, emotional distress and low self-esteem among LGBT youth (Almeida et al., 2009). A study by Gordon and Meyer (2008) identified transgender as the most discriminated among the LGBT community. Gender conformity among transgender made them easy targets of discrimination in schools and job. According to Gordon and Meyer (2008), transgender have had difficulty sharing washrooms with other people leading to a sense of perceived discrimination.
LGBT in 2017
Significant progress has been made in ending discrimination of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender in the United States and the rest of the world. The Supreme Court ruling on the same sex marriage in 2013 created new hope for acceptance, fair treatment, and end of discrimination (Pichler, 2016). Even though some states have not yet allowed gay marriages, public perception on LGBT is more positive. The societies are becoming less discriminatory to the LGBT members, in fact, lesbians, gays, transgender and bisexual can identify themselves more freely now that they did ten years ago. Social acceptance of gender and sexual identity is gradual among American societies. Legalization of same-sex marriage was a huge milestone in the fight for human rights. It has influenced global public perception positively to the extent that some of the most strict countries are loosening their perception on LGBT (Pichler, 2016).
In the United States, the Obama regime has had some positive impact on LGBT rights and acceptance. Just in the last nine years, the LGBT has had same-sex legalized, legal protection for transgender minors and increased employment of LGBT members in public jobs including the military (Pichler, 2016). This success has been achieved through legislation, persistence fight for LGBT rights and the regime�s commitment to ensuring equality. Other countries have also made a significant effort in ending LGBT discrimination through increased public acceptance. Studies in 2017 show that Europe is the most successful continent in supporting the LGBT community through non-discriminatory laws, high public perception and low discrimination. The European Union is also making significant strides to replace discriminatory laws with more accommodative laws that are considerate of gender and sexual diversity (Pichler, 2016). The European Union is ensuring the Ease of travel of LGBT member to European countries, enforcing laws that protect the LGBT members from discrimination and homophobia. The European Union has invested in education and public awareness on LGBT which is meant to improve social acceptance and end bullying directed to LGBT Students
The Trump presidency is expected to have an impact on the LGBT rights because, Trump and the Republicans are not supporters of the LGBT community (Slagter, 2017). In just a hundred days, the education secretary Betsy DeVos, has withdrawn guidelines for accommodating transgender students hence leaving the decision to the schools. According to Slagter (2017), the move will create room for discrimination against transgenders by school heads. The Trump adminstration also overturned the federal guidelines created during the Obama regime that requires every public school to have locker rooms and restrooms that match the gender identity of transgenders (Slagter,2017). According to McVicar (2017), the move of delegating the role of deciding on whether to have inclusive restroom for transgenders leaves room for discrimination.
Conclusion
The LGBT community has gone through difficult times fighting for their rights while undergoing discrimination and alienation. The level of discrimination has led to social-economic and literacy disparities between the LGBT members and their hetero sexual counterparts. Public acceptance of LGBT rights has improved over the years with the last ten years being the most revolutionary in the LGBT history. Despite the enactment of supportive legislation and public education on LGBT right, dicrimination still exist in schools, jobs and at homes. It is also evident that the support of the government of the day is important in ending discrimination against LGBT and protecting their rights.
References
Almeida, J., Johnson, R. M., Corliss, H. L., Molnar, B. E., & Azrael, D. (2009). Emotional distress among LGBT youth: The influence of perceived discrimination based on sexual orientation. Journal of youth and adolescence, 38(7), 1001-1014.
Blackman, G.,J. (2017). How Are LGBT Youths Affected by Discrimination and What Can Schools Do to Help? York College. Retrieved from https://www.york.cuny.edu/academics/writing-program/the-york-scholar-1/volume-5- fall-2008/how-are-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-lgbt-youths-affected-by- discrimination-and
Bowman, K., Rugg, A., & Marisco, J. (2013). Polls on attitudes on homosexuality and gay marriage. American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved from http://www.aei.org/wpcontent/uploads/2013/03/-polls-on-attitudes-on-homosexuality- gaymarriage_151640318614.pdf.
Burn,C. (2011). Gay and Transgender People Face High Rates of Workplace Discrimination and Harassment. Center of American Progress.. Retrieved from https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/lgbt/news/2011/06/02/9872/gay-and- transgender-people-face-high-rates-of-workplace-discrimination-and-harassment/
Gordon, A., & Meyer, I. (2008). Gender Nonconformity as a Target of Prejudice, Discrimination, and Violence Against LGB Individuals. Journal Of LGBT Health Research, 3(3), 55-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15574090802093562
Green, M. S. (2012). Anchorage LGBT discrimination survey: Final report. Anchorage: Identity, Inc. 15-73.
Guasp, A. (2012). The experiences of gay young people in Britain�s schools in 2012. The school report, 3-30. Retrieved from http://www.stonewall.org.uk/sites/default/files/The_School_Report__2012_.pdf
Guasp, A.,Ellison, G. & Satara, T. (2014). Homophobic Bullying In Britain�s Schools In 2014. The teachers� Report 2014. 2-39. Retrieved from http://www.stonewall.org.uk/sites/default/files/teachers_report_2014.pdf
Herek, G. M. (2002). Heterosexuals' attitudes toward bisexual men and women in the United States. Journal of Sex Research, 39(4), 264-274.
McVicar, B. (2017).Trump administration overturns Obama-era transgender bathroom guidance. Michigan Live Media Group. Retrieved from http://www.mlive.com/news/index.ssf/2017/02/trump_administration_overturns.html
Slagter, L. (2017). LGBT rights advocates discuss potential impact of 'Trump era' policy. Michigan Live Media Group. Retrieved from http://www.mlive.com/news/ann- arbor/index.ssf/2017/03/lgbt_rights_panel.html
Pichler, S., Blazovich, J., Cook, K., Huston, J., & Strawser, W. (2017). Do LGBT-supportive Corporate Policies Enhance Firm Performance?. Academy Of Management Proceedings, 2015(1), 15078-15078. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/ambpp.2015.15078

July 24, 2021

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