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In my research, I chosen Liver cancer as a type of most cancers that affects the endocrine system. Liver cancer mainly originates from the liver when normal cells in the liver change in look and behavior.
The abnormal changes of cells in the liver lead to unsafe biological changes. First, the damaged lipoproteins in the liver forestall the hepatic cells from absorbing and clearing the metabolic products of lipoproteins. Additionally, the damaged cells bar the integrity of hepatocellular characteristic that is influenced by normal lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. As a result, the liver fails to synthesize endogenous lipoproteins and plasma proteins which are integral for normal body function. The extended damage to cells prevents the liver from performing biological functions. The affected liver will fail to perform its role of energy metabolism (Jiang, et al., 2007). The liver will not be able to regulate the synthesis and degradation of lipids and lipoproteins necessary for metabolism.
Differences between cancer cells and normal cells
Cancer cells can be differentiated from normal cells based on morphology, reproduction, communication, adhesion and invasion, specialization and recognition. In terms of morphology, normal cells have uniform shapes and sizes while cancerous cells are large, have varied sizes and shapes and the nucleuses are irregular with relatively small cytoplasm (Nakanishi, et al., 2013). Reproduction of normal cells is controlled while the cancerous cells have uncontrolled growth. Normal cells communicate while cancerous cells do not. With normal cells, the external membranes make them bonded while cancerous cells have lost molecules that keep cells bonded; as such, they can invade and spread to other parts (Nakanishi, et al., 2013). As opposed to normal cells, cancerous cells do not recognize signals and they lack specialized functions.
The liver usually plays a critical role in ensuring a homeostatic balance during metabolic reactions. Homeostatic balance is attained by the production of energy and other molecules necessary for proper functioning of other cells. Liver cancer changes the metabolism of lipoproteins and lipids and thus makes the liver incapable of performing its homeostatic functions. Hepatic cells fail to work with lipoproteins receptor cells surface to attain a balance of lipids and lipoprotein metabolism (Bisteau, et al., 2014).
There are several therapies offered to treat liver cancer. They include liver transplant (surgery), chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, radiation therapy, tumor embolization, and tumor ablation. The biological therapies change the functioning of cancerous cells as well as help the body to control the growth of the cancerous cells. Some of the therapies facilitate the destruction of cancer cells while others help the body to attack the cancer cells.
Lifestyle: prevention and treatment
Liver cancer has numerous risk factors that can be managed to prevent the disease. First, there is a need to protect against Hepatitis B and C infection through vaccination and by abstaining from unprotected sex, sharing needles and unscreened blood transfusion. Hepatitis B and C lead to liver cirrhosis which in turn causes liver cancer. Also, individuals need to avoid ingesting anabolic steroids, aflatoxin and reduce alcohol consumption. Individuals that are diagnosed with liver cancer can lead a good quality life by maintaining the right diet and doing appropriate regular exercise (Zelber-Sagi, et al., 2016).
Compare liver cancer with other types of cancer
Cancerous cells causing liver cancer distort the proper functioning of the cell and the organ at large (Jiang, et al., 2007). The same case applies to another type of cancer such as lymphoma, breast cancer, and thyroid cancer. In lymphoma, for instance, destroys the functioning of white blood cells and makes the lymphatic system unable to guard the body against infections. The only difference with the cancers at cell and organ level is the resulting effect as each type of cancer affect different kinds of cells that perform different functions in the body.
Bisteau, X., Caldez, M. J., & Kaldis, P. (2014). The Complex Relationship between Liver Cancer and the Cell Cycle: A Story of Multiple Regulations. Cancers, 6(1), 79–111. http://doi.org/10.3390/cancers6010079
Jiang, J., Xu, N., Zhang, X., & Wu, C. (2007). Lipids changes in liver cancer . Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B, 8(6), 398–409. http://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.2007.B0398
Nakanishi, Y., Seno, H., Fukuoka, A., Ueo, T., Yamaga, Y., Maruno, T., ... & Isomura, A. (2013). Dclk1 distinguishes between tumor and normal stem cells in the intestine. Nature genetics, 45(1), 98-103.
Zelber-Sagi, S., Godos, J., & Salomone, F. (2016). Lifestyle changes for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a review of observational studies and intervention trials. Therapeutic advances in gastroenterology, 9(3), 392-407
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