Mango Ginger (Curcuma amada)

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Curcuma Amada belongs to the ginger family and has a raw mango taste thus, also referred to as the mango ginger. The plant is a favorite spice and vegetable commonly used in making pickles and chutneys.  Mango Ginger is described to have a perfect mix of earthy floral and pepper overtones. More so, it is considered to have a therapeutic value. In Ayurveda, it is known as Karpura Haridra or Amra Haridra (Barthakur et al. 154). Curcuma Amada remedies digestive problems, improves appetite, reliefs cold and cough, and also relieving pains and inflammations. The plant is also an aromatic herb belonging to the Zingiberaceae family. It originated from the Indo-Malayan and spread to the Asian tropics, Africa, and Australia. Curcuma Amada is mainly found in the wild and also cultivated in many areas in the world. In the northeastern parts of India, the native species that include C. aeruginosa, C. sylvatica, C.brog, and C.caesia are prevalent. Mango ginger is an herbaceous plant, whose rhizomes are the useful part (Hamid et al. 316).

C. Amada propagates through the rhizome. Farmer's store part of the rhizomes harvested to use for the planting season (Barthakur et al. 154). But during growth and storage, the rhizomes face pythium attack that leads to rotting hence lowering the number of rhizomes available for reproduction (Jatoi et al. 507).

Several studies have tried to analyze the concentration of bioactive compounds during the growth cycle of C. Amada. From plantation to 60 days, the phase is referred to as the vegetative. Sixty to one hundred and fifty days is categorized as the developmental phase, 150 to 180 days of the maturation phase, and beyond 180 days is the senescence phase. The peak accumulation of bioactive compounds occurs between 120 days to 180 days. However, during the senescence period, the concentration starts to decline. Also, analysis of the pulp and the juice indicates that the pulp contains a higher level of phenolic and difurocumenonol. So, the prime time to harvest the rhizomes is ideally between 120-180 days (Paliwal et al. 56).

Synthetic antioxidants are not the best suited for use with food products. Through β-carotene bleaching, Curcuma Amada produces an aqueous methanol extract, which has excellent scavenging qualities (Policegoudra et al. 189). The antioxidants quality in both cooked and fresh form remains more or less the same making it an excellent choice for culinary preparations. Temperatures play a role in determining the fate of bioactive compounds (Prakash et al. 159). The bioactive compounds concentration seems to decrease with time at ambient temperatures rendering the rhizomes less useful. But by storing mango ginger under low temperatures 14 degrees, Celsius improves the phytochemicals retention capability of the rhizomes. In these regards, ambient temperature is not the ideal temperature to store the rhizomes when intending to preserve the phytochemicals during prolonged storage (Policegoudra et al. 190).

Medicinal uses in Ayurveda

Curcuma Amada could easily be ranked among the top medicinal plants because of its wide range of uses in the medical world (Rakh et al. 2391). The rhizome part of the plant is the one that is used for medicinal purposes. The rhizome is often sliced, boiled, ground into powder blended into juice form.  In Ayurdevic systems, the plant was used to treat menstrual difficulties, bleeding, jaundice, colic, and as an anti-inflammatory (Hamid et al. 317). The mango ginger contains some volatile oils, of car-3-one and cis-ocimene that are associated with the mango flavor, among a range of 68 other volatile oils (Policegoudra et al. 188). Mango ginger is related to many biological activities thanks to its richness in bioactive compounds. These compounds are used for both external and internal applications. Externally, Mango Gingers extract can be used to dress and heal wounds and treat skin diseases (Policegoudra et al. 190).

The extracts also inhibit bacterial activity against a range of bacteria that include B. subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus fecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella typhi (Rakh et al. 2394). The phenolic fractions of the Curcuma Amada contain Cinnamic and ferulic acids that are the major players in the bacteria inhibition. Mycrene and pinene components in the Curcuma Amada are essentially antifungal inhibiting fungi such as viz. Curvularia palliscens, A. terreus, Aspergillus niger, F. falcatum, and Fusarium moniliforme. Anti-inflammatory activity is achieved thanks to the presence of carbonyl, hydroxyl, ester, and olefin groups, which were evident in alcohol extracts of the rhizome. Some of the excerpts also show platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, which means that Curcuma Amada finds use as a natural platelet aggregation inhibitor (Rakh et al. 2391).

            Free radical scavenging effects of Curcuma Amada translates to the antioxidant quality that further translates to anticarcinogenic effects compounds (Prakash et al. 160). The extracts have also been documented to increase glutathione levels indirectly. The two properties; anticarcinogenic effects and increasing the levels of Glutathione contributes to the medical detoxification of carcinogens and mutagens developing in the liver. Colon, breasts as well as the prostates. Antiallergy formulations are common treatments where one is likely to find the mango ginger extracts. Studies have shown that specific excerpts could also be used as biopesticides. The research indicates that these extracts would result in 100% mortality of the target pests, while also discouraging the emergence of a particular type of weevils (Jatoi et al. 508).  

Applicability in Common Medicine of Today

Below is how the antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antiallergenic, an analgesic, among other properties of the Curcuma Amada gets to use in Ayurveda (Jatoi et al. 509). Mixing the rhizomes with buttermilk to form a paste creates a remedy for fungal infection used by applying to fungal infection patches on the body. In the occurrence of colic pains administering 2-3 grams of the rhizome juice with buttermilk or warm water reduces colic pain instantly. This plant also finds applicability in conventional medicine as a calming agent. Mixing and heating 25 grams of amber half and 100 grams of sesame oil produces a pain reliever that is used during massaging (Barthakur et al. 154).

In addition to the antifungal properties, C. Amada also works to treat a range of other skin conditions such as acne. Furthermore, it is a proven skin detoxifier (Prakash et al. 160).  To treat skin conditions it requires that one mixes two spoons full of Curcuma Amada juice extract with two spoons full of rose water or milk. When ready, the mixture is applied to the skin and left for a minimum twenty minutes before washing with cold water.

The mango juice extract forms an essential ingredient in multiple skin care products (Jatoi et al. 507). Containing anti-allergenic, Curcuma Amada is used in relieving skin irritation. Consequently, two spoonfuls of the mango ginger and coconut oil are mixed and then applied to the irritated skin. Alternatively, one can combine one teaspoonful of Aam Haldi with a cup of milk, boil it and drink. Moreover, being an anti-fungal and anti-microbial makes Curcuma Amada ideal for use to remedy head ailments such as lice and dandruff (Prakash et al. 160).

Mango ginger is also known to relieve cold and cough since it has expectorant and analgesic properties. The concoction used to reduce coughing can as well be used for relieving asthma and bronchitis. The mixture comprises of spoon of Aam Haldi powder and water; fresh juice could also serve the purpose that water serves. For the treatment of arthritis, mango ginger is used in accompaniment of Moringa and Maricha powder. 200 gram of moringa bark is grounded and boiled till it evaporates to collect the paste. The paste is then mixed with 100 grams of mango ginger and 100 gram of Maricha powder and then applied to the joints (Policegoudra et al. 189).

Significance of the Application of Curcuma Amada in Ayurvedic and Modern Applications

In Ayurveda, people still used mango ginger for medicine and spices. It is apparent that the phytochemicals in Mango ginger have a high potential for treating complicated ailments such as cancers that are usually expensive to get treatment using modern technology. Therefore, many cancer patients can easily access the plant. Upon the full development of the Curcuma Amada based pharmaceuticals, there could be a breakthrough in the medical field in offering natural and way cheaper treatment (Hamid et al. 316). Furthermore, if people can adopt the use of Curcuma Amada for spices, there is a possibility that they would live much healthier lives. Manufacturing companies should embrace the use of the mango ginger’s extracts for their products (Paliwal et al. 56). Often the anti-fungal or antibacterial additives in most of the household products are synthetic and end up generating allergies from many people. The manufacturing cost could also decrease and hence avail the products at a more affordable price for the consumers. With reflection on the manufacturing use of the Curcuma Amada, it is clear that its use can extend to more than just pharmaceutical use, despite the fact that users in manufacturing capitalize on the health benefits. This plant is seemingly a real magical plant with so much to offer for a single plant. Scientists should crown the plant to develop species for all parts of the world (Hamid et al. 316).

In conclusion, it appears that the prospects of using Curcuma Amada as a future remedy for medical complications and as a pesticide are high. Scientific results seem to point towards incredible suitability of the plant for different therapeutic and preventive applications. The plant is readily available, which will facilitate easy access to the medicinal products. It is apparent that modern synthetic medicines come with a myriad of side effects. However, Curcuma Amada has the potential to cover the whole spectrum of bioactive activities necessary to counter a significant number of human ailments. The epidemiological studies suggest that phytochemicals will replace chemical pharmaceuticals and dietary constituents to be the primary source of medicines and nutritional supplements (Paliwal et al. 56).

Works Cited

Barthakur, Phukan, Shakhtar Bordoloi. "Micropropagation of Curcuma Amada (Roxb.)." Journal of Spices & Aromatic Crops, vol.1, no. 2

(1992): pp. 154-156.

Hamid, Nasri, Mehdi Nematbakhsh, Shamin, Ghobadi, Roya Ansari, Najmeh Shahinfard, and Mahmoud Rafieian. "Preventive and Curative Effects of Ginger Extract Against Histopathologic Changes of Gentamicin-Induced Tubular Toxicity in Rats." Int J Prev Med, vol. 4, no. 3 (Int J Prev Med): pp. 316-321.

Jatoi, Shakeel, Afsheen Zehra and Kazuo, Watanabe. "Phytochemical, pharmacological and ethnobotanical studies in mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.; Zingiberaceae)." Phytother Res., 21(6) (2007): 507-16.

Joshi, Ankita, RS. Chauhan. "Phytochemical Analysis and Cytotoxicity Studies of Curcuma Amada Rhizomes in BHK-21 Cells." International Journal of Scientific Research in Environmental Sciences, vol. 1, no. 12 (2013): pp. 365-71.

Paliwal, Pritesh, SS Pancholi and Rakesh Patel. "Pharmacognostic parameters for evaluation of the rhizomes of Curcuma caesia." Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research, vol. 2, no. 1 (2011): pp. 56-61.

Policegoudra, Rudragoud. "Biochemical Changes and Antioxidant Activity of Mango Ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb.) Rhizomes during Postharvest Storage at Different Temperatures." ResearchGate, vol. 46, no. 2 (2007): pp. 189-194.

Prakash. S, Elangomathavan. R, Seshadri. S, Kathiravan. K, & Ignacimuthu. S. "Efficient Regeneration of Curcuma amada Roxb. Plantlets from Rhizome and Leaf Sheath Explants." Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 78(2)

(2004): 159-165.

Rakh, Maharudra, Rajendra Pawar, Amol Khedkar, Shrikant Darekar, Ramesh Shinde and Somashekar Shiyale. "Phytochemical and Pharmacognostic Parameters for Evaluation of the Rhizomes of Curcuma Amada." solutions, vol. 5, no. 4

(2016): pp. 2391-94.

August 04, 2023




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