Medications and Stress

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1. How does stress, exercise or medication interfere with the menstrual cycle?

Stress and medication create hormonal shifts that interfere with menstrual cycle extensively. Particularly, they alter hormones leading to abnormal cycles (Albert, Pruessner, & Newhouse, 2015). First, stress and medication can delay ovulation when it occurs in the follicablephace due to higher basal body temperatures. Secondly, delayed ovulation leads to a longer cycle that consequently delays the onset of the next menses. Stress and medication early in the cycle can cause a woman not to ovulate and make conception difficult. Further, they can cause individuals to have a shorter luteal phase causing periods to happen sooner than expected. Finally, stress and medication in extreme cases can make a woman miss their cycles.

2. Percy Wetmore age 80 has recently been diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia. What treatment options would you recommend and why?

The best treatment option for Percy is to have standard surgical treatment and mainly urethral stenosis. According to Marmiroli et al. (2012), the standard surgical treatment procedures are safe and satisfactory. Standard surgical treatment is also better compared to pharmacological treatment measures. Usually, prostate hyperplasia increases risks for developing other age-related diseases such as metallic syndrome, diabetes, heart disease, and sexual dysfunction. Thus, medication can be intolerant and have adverse effects on the patient.

3. Compare the pathology and manifestation of endometriosis and adenomyosis?

Endometriosis is a condition caused by deposition of the womb lining on tissues outside the uterus such as abdomen and pelvis. Hormones that stimulate the endometrial lesions lead to painful bleeding. On the other hand, adenomyosis condition occurs when the inner lining of the uterus breaks through the muscle wall of the womb. The condition causes bloating, abdominal pressure, and menstrual cramps (Exacoustos, Manganaro, & Zupi, 2014).

4. Highlight the pathologic mechanisms leading to the polycystic ovarian syndrome and explain how the manifestation of this syndrome is related to the underlying pathologic process

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a condition that results with deregulation in the secretion of androgen (Rosenfield & Ehrmann, 2016). Further, PCOS results from diverse environmental and genetic factors that include insulins secretory defects, insulin resistance, hyperandrogenemia, prenatal androgen exposure, and poor fetal growth among others. Insulin resistant contributes to the conditions and complications. Particularly, the manifestation increases incidences of obesity.

5. Discuss the pathophysiology of testosterone deficiency and premature ovarian failure

Testosterone deficiency is a condition associated with old age and is characterized by lower production of testicular testosterone (Morales et al. 2015). Lower production of testosterone naturally starts at the age of 30; however, there are other causes of the condition which include injury, chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer, chronic illness, chronic kidney failure, stress, and inflammatory diseases among others. On the hand, premature ovarian failure (POF) is an association elevated menopausal serum, sex steroid deficiency, and amenorrhea. The condition is caused by numerous factors such as infections, environmental toxins, iatrogenic causes, genetic disorders, idiopathic causes, and autoimmunological causes.

6. Discuss the menstrual cycle and the hormones involved during the cycle

The menstrual cycle takes about 28 days and leads to a release of a mature ovum from the ovary (Albert, Pruessner, & Newhouse, 2015). If the ovum is not fertilized, menstruation occurs, and the process is influenced by some hormones. First, there is the Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) that stimulates the development of new follicles and estrogen hormone. Estrogen helps the follicles to grow further in the ovaries, thickens the endometrium while suppressing the production of luteinizing hormone (LH) until ovulation is ready to happen. The LH signals ovulation, and if fertilization does not occur, the home disintegrates and is released along with the uterine lining.

7. How is prostate cancer diagnosed, and what are the treatment options?

Usually, prostate screening tests are recommended to allow for early detection and treatment in case of the presence of cancer. The detection of abnormalities necessitates diagnosis to ascertain the presence of prostate cancer. Diagnosis can be made through transrectal ultrasound, a prostate biopsy that involves the collection of prostate tissue, and MRI fusion. Treatment options include active surveillance for individuals whose cancer cells are not multiplying. However, the progression of cancer cells requires treatment through surgery or radiation.


Albert, K., Pruessner, J., & Newhouse, P. (2015). Estradiol levels modulate brain activity and negative responses to psychosocial stress across the menstrual cycle. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 59, 14-24.

Exacoustos, C., Manganaro, L., & Zupi, E. (2014). Imaging for the evaluation of endometriosis and adenomyosis. Best practice & research Clinical obstetrics & gynaecology, 28(5), 655-681.

Marmiroli, R., Antunes, A. A., Reis, S. T., Nakano, E., & Srougi, M. (2012). Standard surgical treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia is safe for patients over 75 years: analysis of 100 cases from a high-volume urologic center. Clinics (Sao Paulo, Brazil), 67(12), 1415-8.

Morales, A., Bebb, R. A., Manjoo, P., Assimakopoulos, P., Axler, J., Collier, C., Elliott, S., Goldenberg, L., Gottesman, I., Grober, E. D., Guyatt, G. H., Holmes, D. T., Lee, J. C., Canadian Men’s Health Foundation Multidisciplinary Guidelines Task Force on Testosterone Deficiency (2015). Diagnosis and management of testosterone deficiency syndrome in men: clinical practice guideline. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne, 187(18), 1369-77.

Rosenfield, R. L., & Ehrmann, D. A. (2016). The Pathogenesis of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): The Hypothesis of PCOS as Functional Ovarian Hyperandrogenism Revisited. Endocrine reviews, 37(5), 467-520.

October 13, 2023




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