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Toxoplasma gondii's lifecycle cycle was studied on the Medscape website. The reproductive life cycle is only observed in cats, according to this website. The asexual cycle occurs in a variety of bird and mammalian strains, including humans. It is divided into two types: bradyzoites, which are steadily developing tissue that can be seen in cyclist tissues, and tachyzoites, which are a quickly dividing structure that can be seen during the acute infection process. The website also discusses how cats become sick with T gondii, claiming that they do so by eating rats, wild birds, and raw meat. As soon as they are infected with T gondii, the sexual cycle then starts in the cat’s gastrointestinal tract. Microgametocytes and Macrogametocytes arise from the ingested bradyzoites and fuse leading to zygotes. The zygotes then encapsulated inside the walls that are rigid, therefore they are shed off as oocysts.
In the primary infection, the infected cat has the capacity of excreting millions of on a daily basis for 1 to 3 weeks. The oocyte is quite strong and can remain too infectious in for more than a year when they are in the warm humidly areas.
T gondii, bradyzoites and tachyzoites can lead to human infection. The infection results from oocytes ingestion following of consumption of contaminated water or food and handling of soil that is contaminated. To the fetus, the transmission of tachyzoites takes place via placenta after the primary maternal infection.
According to this website rarely does the infection by tachyzoites occur by entry into the bloodstream via blood transfusion or through ingestion of unpasteurized milk. The transmission can also arise from ingestion of bradyzoites through transplant of organs that contain tissue cysts, uncooked or undercooked meat. In the United States and Europe, the main source of T gondii infection in human is pork.
The website goes further to state that the antibodies for T gondii vary from region to region, with the prevalence rates approaching 90% in the countries found in Europe. In the United States, the seropositive rates have been estimated to drop between 15% and 10%
According to C. A. Speer, D. S. Lindsay and J. P. Dubey the infection by the protozoan virus T gondii are greatly prevalent in animals and humans all over the world. Toxoplasma gondii has emerged as one of common infection among those people with AIDS. The authors focus on the biology and structure of T. gondii stages (tissue cysts, bradyzoites, and tachyzoites) in the intermediate host which is humans and the resistant that is outside the host.
According to this journal, there are three infectious stages of Toxoplasma gondii the sporozoites, the bradyzoites and the tachyzoites. The tachyzoites is a stage when the cells are rapidly multiplied in the in nonintestinal epithelial cells of the host and cell of the intermediate host. The journal also makes a description of the tachyzoite as crescent shaped, with a rounded posterior end and a pointed anterior. Ultrastructural, the tachyzoite consist of various inclusion bodies and organelles including nucleus, micropore, reticulum, rough and smooth endoplasmic, ribosomes, Golgi complex, endoplasmic reticulum, microtubules, subpellicular, mitochondrion, micropore, micronemes, rhoptries, conoid, polar rings, apical rings, pellicle (outer covering), numerous membrane-bound plastid-like organelles, amylopectin granules and dense granules. The nucleus contains clumps of mitochondria; it is located in the center area of the cell and nucleolus.
The article also talks about the tissue cysts and bradyzoites. According to the authors, bradyzoites differs slightly from the tachyzoites. They tend to have a nucleus that is located on the posterior end while the nucleus in the tachyzoites is centrally located. The content of rhoptries in bradyzoites tends to vary with the tissue cyclist age whereas the content of rhoptries in the bradyzoites as normal electron dense. Tachyzoites and less slender than the bradyzoites.
The article also focuses on other aspects that include generic regulation of tissue cyst numbers, separation of the tissue cysts from the tissue of the host and the tissue reactivation and rapture of latent infection. Finally, the article analyses the resistance of the T gondii bradyzoites and tachyzoites to acid-pepsin digestion.
According to Mayoclinic Toxoplasma gondii is parasitic that is single celled, according to the article authors it can infect both birds and animals. The parasite tends to reproduce only in cats, domestic and wild felines are usually the eventual host of the parasite. When an individual is infected with T gondii the parasite forms cyclists that indeed infect the individuals in all parts of the body often the heart, muscle, and brain.
According to this website if a person is healthy the immune system will keep the parasite at bay. The parasite will remain the in the human body but in a state that is inactive, providing the individual with immunity so that they cannot get infected with the parasite once again. But the immune system is weakened because of a disease or certain medication; the infection can be reactivated leading to serious consequences.
Despite the fact that an individual cannot be infected with toxoplasmosis from an infected adult or child, one can become infected by it if: they come into contact with feces of cats that contain this parasite. An individual can easily be infected by the parasite by directly ingesting it by touching after cleaning a litter box, gardening or handling anything that came into contact with the feces that are infected. Those cats that in many cases hunt are the most likely carrier of Toxoplasma gondii.
From this website, an individual can also become infected by drinking water and eating food that is contaminated. Venison, pork, and lamb are the products that are likely to be infected with Toxoplasma gondii. In minimal cases, unpasteurized commodities such as the dairy products can have this parasite. In the United States water that is infected with Toxoplasma gondii is not so common.
According to Mayoclinic, a person can also be infected by handling contaminated cutting boards, knives, and another utensil. Those kitchen utensils that come into contact with the raw meat that is infected can harbor the parasite unless they are thoroughly cleaned with soap and water. People can also get infected by eating vegetables and fruits that are unwashed. This is because the surface of vegetable and fruits can contain this parasite. For one to be safe, all produce must thoroughly be washed especially when they are eaten when raw.
This website also highlights that infection can be transmitted through receiving an infected transfuse blood or an organ transplant. From this website, anyone can be infected with toxoplasmosis, and the parasite can be found all over the word. An individual is at a greater risk of infection of toxoplasmosis if: one is pregnant; if one takes steroids or other immunosuppressant drugs when an individual is undergoing chemotherapy and lastly when infected with HIV/AIDS.
According to this article, the latent adult acquired toxoplasmosis animals, and humans were taken to be symptomatic. Toxoplasma gondii, on the other hand, represents one of the most convincing examples of manipulating parasites of the vertebrates. The T. gondii has the capacity of infecting the warm-blooded animals all over the world. The only definitive host of this parasites are the members of the cat family, within which the parasite undergoes mating and gametogenesis within the intestinal epithelium. The article furthermore states that oocytes are spherical to subspherical and have a diameter of about 12 μm.
The article analyses how the T gondii infection can alter the host behavior and recognition. The article categorizes and defines behavior alterations in terms of whether the infections behavior that is observed in the host is indicative of 1. ‘by-product pathology' resulting from the unintentional infection with a parasite that is known to alter the performance and life cycles stages. 2) A widespread pathological reaction in the without any selection that is evident.
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According to this article, the Toxoplasma gondii appears to lead to behavior change across the host species. The behavioral and physical changes in Toxoplasma gondii human infection can be taken to be general by-product or pathology, and this depends on the same characteristics severity and the traits that have been altered. The latent Toxoplasma gondii infection in the human beings may have a substantial health implication. The authors make a suggestion that genetically naturally occurring and genetically engineered mutant’s rodent model can be helpful in providing requisite detail about molecular, behavioral and neurodevelopmental consequences of deregulation of specific genes.
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