Natural Selection and Evolution

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The theory of evolution shifted its focus with the rise of naturalists. Before the 19th Century, scholars, philosophers, and researchers believed that the species looked different or similar because of the works of an omnipotent creator. In this regard, these proponents argued that species should remain the same irrespective of differences in their generation and period. However, the naturalists disputed this argument because they believed some traits are hereditary while some are influenced by the environment (Patanella 461). This paper focuses on the discussion around the theory of evolution and natural selection. Charles Darwin is considered the first proponent of the theory of evolution; therefore, he is viewed as the father of development. When animals of the same species live in one area, they often compete for the available resources in the region. Thus, when the resources are limited, the animals migrate to different environments in search of food. The individual members of a particular species adapt to different environments differently. Besides, in the bid to survive in the new environment, the species change certain features. It should be noted that those animals that do not adapt to the changes in the new environment get extinct. Therefore, after some time there is a gradual transmutation which leads to the differences in replica in the animals of the same species (Patanella 463).

Darwin followed the steps of scientific methods in developing his theories. While at Galapagos Island, he noticed the differences in the beaks of the mockingbirds on the island and those from other islands. Also, Darwin observed that even though the armadillo of South America and the megatheres of Argentina lived in different countries, they had similarities in their fossils. Therefore, Darwin concluded on his hypothesis of natural selection which advocated for the slight differences witnessed in species due to environmental adaptation for survival (Ellis 50).

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Works Cited

Ellis, John. "Darwin’s Theory of Evolution." How Science Works: Evolution. Springer, Dordrecht, 2016. 45-66.

Patanella, Daniel. "Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection." Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development. Springer US, 2011. 461-463.

September 21, 2021


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