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Physiology and anatomy in Fertility

Maria most likely measured her fertility using a calendar and her last menstrual cycle by using the rhythm birth control system. While being a natural means of birth control, it has some advantages and disadvantages. Any of the benefits include the lack of a drug, equitable partner engagement, and the fact that it is all normal. Some drawbacks include the risk of STDs, a lack of dependability, and unpredictability. Maria is most likely two months pregnant. My estimate is based on the fact that she has already missed two menstrual periods in a row.
To avoid this incident, the pair needed to stick to their planned dates for sexual intercourse. Given the information that Matt and Maria partied regularly and extensively during the past several months, it is likely that they engaged outside the calculated dates.

Question 3

During the menstrual cycle, the physiological process that takes place is ovulation. During the first phase of the cycle called the menstrual phase, the pituitary glands begin to secrete the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), whose rise triggers the next phase called the proliferative phase (Mihm, et al., 2011). During the second phase, the ovaries produce hormone oestrogen. Once oestrogen is produced, the level of FSH reduces as its secretion slows down. The pituitary glands then begin to secrete the Luteinizing hormone (LH). In the third phase, if conception and implantation fail to occur, the pituitary glands reduce the secretion of the FSH and the LH. In the absence of LH, the secretion of oestrogen also slows down which triggers the shedding of endometrium that causes menstruation to begin, and the cycle starts over again.

Question 4

The Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) would be evident in Maria's urine. This hormone is produced during pregnancy. It is made by cells formed in the placenta. The hormone nourishes the egg after it has been fertilized to ensure pregnancy. The nourishment continues to the foetus as it becomes attached to the uterine walls (Mihm, et al., 2011).

Question 5

Ovum is released during the second phase of the menstrual period when the level of oestrogen is high causing a rapid rise in the luteinizing hormone. As the release of the luteinizing hormone increases, the dominant follicle ruptures and releases the ovum. The ovum then enters the Fallopian tube (Mihm, et al., 2011). During a typical menstrual period, the ovum is produced on average day 14 of the menstrual cycle (Mihm, et al., 2011). In most women, the ovum is released on a different day of the menstrual cycle.

Question 6

Alcohol has various effects on a human embryo in the uterus because alcohol can pass from the mother's blood into the baby's blood. Some of the effects include; congenital disabilities, learning and behaviour problems, growth problems, distinctive facial features, and problems bonding or feeding as a new-born (Jesuratnam, et al., 2011). These mental and physical problems in the baby are called foetal alcohol syndrome. The problems occur because alcohol in the mother's blood can easily pass to the foetus' blood. It is very probably that Maria's unborn child is affected by the foetal alcohol syndrome because she partied regularly and extensively without the knowledge that she was pregnant. It is very likely that she took alcohol during the parties.

Question 7

Apart from unplanned pregnancy, the primary health risk associated with unprotected sex is that of STDs. Major Infections under STDs include AIDs and gonorrhoea. AIDs is caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The spread of HIV/AIDs is majorly caused by contact with infected blood, semen, or virginal fluids. Another common way is sharing sharp objects with an infected person. The symptoms of HIV/AIDs include skin rash, night sweats, genital wart, and immunodeficiency. The primary diagnosis of HIV/AIDs includes the ELISA test. There is no proven cure for HIV/AIDs, but the taking of antiretroviral drugs control the virus.

Another STD is gonorrhoea. It is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Workowski, 2010). Some symptoms of gonorrhoea include; painful or swollen testicles, burning when urinating, swollen glands in the throat, and burning in the throat. Diagnosis of the disease is made by swabbing the infected site and identifying the bacteria in the laboratory (Workowski, 2010). The recommended treatment of the infection is antibiotics either cefixime or ceftriaxone.

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References

Jesuratnam, G., Oakeshott, P., & Mukherjee, R. (2011). Alcohol and pregnancy. Br J Gen Pract, 61(593), 719-719.

Mihm, M., Gangooly, S., & Muttukrishna, S. (2011). The normal menstrual cycle in women. Animal reproduction science, 124(3), 229-236.

Workowski, K. A., & Berman, S. (2010). Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010.

August 18, 2021

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