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A respiratory therapist treats patients with respiratory problems, for example, those with damaged and underdeveloped lungs. Whereas registered nurses are responsible for administering primary healthcare services to patients of all conditions, including those with respiratory problems in the acute care system (Jambhekar et al. 2013).
The normal lung sounds include projections similar to the natural air sound waves whereas abnormal lung sounds indicate the presence of a problem in the lungs or airways. The abnormal lung sounds may include whistling sound which is high pitched termed as wheezing which is caused by the bronchial tubes that are abnormally narrow, stridor which sounds like vibrating sounds caused by the upper airways narrowing abnormally and also rhonchi and crackles which are low and high pitched breath sounds respectively (Jambhekar et al. 2013).
Respiratory patterns are an indication of the occurrence of hyperventilation and apnea alternatively. The normal respiratory pattern happens when diaphragm expands prior to the expansion of the ribcage during inhalation. Abnormal breathing pattern occurs when the process is reversed due to complications in the lungs and the airways. The abnormal respiratory patterns include apnea which is an indication of the absence of respiration, orthopnea which is whereby the patient is required to always sit uprightly in order the breath comfortably, dyspnea which is indicated by breathing difficulties, tachypnea which includes respiratory frequency without any abnormality of the blood gas levels or composition, and hyperventilation and hypoventilation which is indicated by more and less ventilation in relation to the level of CO2 needed for elimination in the body respectively (Sengupta, Sahidullah & Saha, 2016).
The different modes of oxygenation involve both invasive and non-invasive modes. The blow-by is whereby oxygen is delivered to the patients breathing system from an oxygen source such as gas canister through the nostrils or mouth. The nasal cannula is an invasive mode whereby a tube with split ends is connected to the oxygen source with the two ends being inserted in the patient's nostrils so as to deliver supplemental oxygen. The high flow oxygen involves high rate oxygen delivery whereby humidified and compressed air is delivered to the individual. Airvo involved delivery of warm and humidified oxygen to patients with a problem of spontaneous breathing. BiPAP mode involves the used of a two-sided machine to help patients with nocturnal apnea in inhalation and exhalation. Cpap mode assists the patients with the inability of spontaneous breathing to help in the continuous flow of oxygen. A ventilator helps to improve the efficiency of the flow of air in and out of the lungs for patients with breathing problems (Frat et al. 2015).
The nebulizer is a therapy applied in treating patients with respiratory problems. Medication is delivered by it being mixed with oxygen and compressed and humidified air which is inhaled through the mouth and nostrils into the lungs. Inhalers are used to treat asthmas and COPD in the delivery of oxygen to the body through the lungs. Chest physiotherapy is used to clear the airways by removing mucus accumulation. Intrapulmonary respiration is air treatment which helps to remove mucus from the airways. Suctioning is a method whereby mucus is removed from the lungs. The pulmonary function tests involve measurement for the state of the lungs to ensure proper functioning. ABG blood tests measure the PH levels of blood flowing in the blood vessels (Rose et al. 2014).
Bronchodilators are medications which increase the size of the air pathways to reduce the resistance of efficient airflow. Corticosteroids are used to prevent the lung airways from producing mucus. Inhaled antibiotics are useful in inhibiting bacterial production and multiplication in the airways so as to prevent infections (Rose et al. 2014).
Frat, J. P., Thille, A. W., Mercat, A., Girault, C., Ragot, S., Perbet, S., ... & Devaquet, J. (2015). High-flow oxygen through nasal cannula in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. New England Journal of Medicine, 372(23), 2185-2196.
Jambhekar, S. K., Com, G., Tang, X., Pruss, K. K., Jackson, R., Bower, C., ... & Ward, W. (2013). Role of a Respiratory Therapist in improving adherence with positive airway pressure treatment in a Pediatric Sleep Apnea Clinic. Respiratory care, respcare-02312.
Rose, A. R., Catcheside, P. G., McEvoy, R. D., Paul, D., Kapur, D., Peak, E., ... & Antic, N. A. (2014). Sleep disordered breathing and chronic respiratory failure in patients with chronic pain on long term opioid therapy. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 10(08), 847-852.
Sengupta, N., Sahidullah, M., & Saha, G. (2016). Lung sound classification using cepstral-based statistical features. Computers in biology and medicine, 75, 118-129.
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