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should serving in the military be forced on citizens?

This is a glimpse of an essay on military issues that students and political observers may be mindful of. This section stresses that citizens are responsible for the military form their country owns and its use. It is therefore the duty of political observers to train students to make educated decisions on military issues, which involves the recruiting process. The well-established consequence of these activities is the voluntary recruiting of students into the army. This article, therefore, places the responsibility upon the political analyst to enact measures aimed at ensuring Americans join the army out of free will. It also seeks to use the approach of elaborating the concept of the military to the youth so that on this knowledge, they can base their decision, and by so doing, this article becomes relevant to the study.
Smith, Andrea (2016).Women in Culture: An Intersectional Anthology for Gender and Women's Studies.
This article describes the report entailing the working of the Northwest Suburb Peace and Education Project (NWSubPEP) in northern Chicago. The group�s activists visit schools in the aforementioned area, that is, Township high school district 214. As the (NWSubPEP) members visit schools monthly, so does military recruitment officers. It is observed that many students lack adequate information to enable them to make informed decisions regarding whether to or not to join the military. They are also not well aware of military services and the sacrifices one has to make. (NWSubPEP) does among other things; enlighten the youngsters on considerations prior to making the decision, an engagement termed as pre-enlistment counseling. This article rotates about making sure that an individual's decision to join the military is out of free will, nobody is compelled to do so, not even because of lack of knowledge, and therefore it is relevant to my research.
Bailey and Beth L. (2009). America�s Army.
This book outlines how America�s military history unfolded in the 19th century. Chapter one of the book is about the army�s development from a season of peace where it required few recruits to a time when more and more were enrolled. It also sites poverty, specifically inability to pay fees as one of the reasons young men joined the army some even deferring their studies for that sake. According to the book, government also increases terms of payment for the officers in service so as to attract more recruits at such time, with a high possibility that little or no attention is paid to procedural and informed process. As a result, many young men found themselves in the military in a way they could not fully comprehend. The writer displays various ways the state uses to attract more youth to the service at times of crisis but closer scrutiny show that this method actually force youths to join by making them victims of the situation, and it is because of this that the book is relevant to my study.
Giroux, Henry A. (2015) University in chains: Confronting the military-industrial-academic complex.
This book expounds on the role of higher learning institution, essentially universities in societal matters ranging from democracy right to its security. Technology has developed for the better and things that are more efficient have evolved which has placed the institutions for higher learning at the core of all other sectors among them the military. The authors portray the university as a vulnerable institution to abuse by those sectors by virtue of their rank in power. They, therefore, seek to have the institutions freed from that �chain� of anti-democratic activities relating to militarization. In essence, a big population in the universities comprises the youth, whose are the pool for military recruitment and therefore any atrocities aimed at those institutions directly affect them. Finally, in this chapter, the writer calls for critical engagement by the public to solve the issue making this book important and vital for the research.
Martin. (2011) Blacks and the Military.
This book talks about, among other things the involvement of blacks in various missions undertaken by the military but what makes it credible for my research is the Gates Commission report which issues concerning voluntary enrollment are outlined. The sited arguments are more to the fact that voluntary recruitment will influence negatively on the military's operation due to reasons among which patriotism and background are included. The report argues that this way, characters with undesirable psychological characteristics may be enrolled hence lowering the effectiveness of the forces. These ideas contradict the very principles of efficient army recruitment hence subjecting the youth to possible forced recruitment not necessarily by the forces but the situation they find themselves in to cope. The author also points out that the minimum education standards for recruits have been raised meaning that the few with such qualifications may be forced by their patriotic duty to enroll.

Neiberg, Michael S. Making citizen-soldiers (2009).
This book explains situations in history that lead to force military recruitment. In particular, the Morrill Act explains how in 1861 shortage of army personnel forced them to recruit untrained citizens to fill the gap since Norwich graduates could avail only a third of the demand. This meant that if this shortage had to be mitigated well, all the graduates had to enroll whether they liked it or not. Most of the recruits suffered overburden of duty as the military suffered constant defeat even by other allied forces. This is a clear indication of the implication of forced military enrolment since it evidently leads to the death of most of the recruits. The author points out during this period, the military got nothing but scorn because of the continued loss in battle. It is therefore for the benefit of both the military and the citizens that forced recruitment, be avoided at all costs. This book acts like a telescope to show as what the future holds if we take such a step hence this article is of great importance to the study.
Binkin and Martin. (2010) Who will fight the next war?
This is another Binking�s book on military affairs. The book outlines the change in the face of Americans military. Chapter 1 explains how the transition from the older method of recruitment where conscription was rampant to the new voluntary method since the 1980�s. This transition saw increased number of female enrolment as well as inclusion of men in the health care that was traditionally viewed as feminine. The total policy that provided the platform for voluntary recruitment reflected America�s equal opportunity goals and led to the emergence of her strongest army since World War (ii). This is an elaborate model to ensure no American is forced to join the forces if implemented to the letter regardless of the situation, and especially during times of war, and therefore it proves utilitarian for this research.

References
Bailey and Beth L. (2009). America's Army. Harvard University Press,
Binkin and Martin. (2011). Blacks and the Military. Brookings Institution Press,
Binkin, Martin. (2010). Who will fight the next war?The changing face of the American military. Brookings Institution Press.
Giroux and Henry A. (2015). University in chains: Confronting the military-industrial-academic complex. Routledge,
Neiberg and Michael S. (2009). Making citizen-soldiers: ROTC and the ideology of American military service. Harvard University Press,
Smith and Andrea. (2016). "Heteropatriarchy and the three pillars of white supremacy: Rethinking women of color organizing." Women in Culture: An Intersectional Anthology for Gender and Women's Studies 404(5). 34-23.
Stiehm, J. H. (2007). Things students and political scientists might consider about our military. PS: Political Science & Politics, 40(03), 453-456.

July 24, 2021

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