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Table of Cognitive Development

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This is the first step in Piaget's cognitive development where schemes are primarily focused on the insights and behavior of the people concerned. This stage also starts at birth for approximately 2 years (Ormrod 29).
In the sensor motor level, children use symbols to represent physical events and objects as mental entities.
The second step of Piaget's cognitive development, where the children demonstrate capacity for thinking about different activities or things outside the immediate view (Ormrod 30).
Symbolic thoughts In the sensorimotor stage children start using symbols to represent events and physical objects as mental entities.
Preoperational stage The second phase of Piaget’s cognitive progression where the children showcase potentials to think regarding varied tasks and items beyond the immediate view; however, they do not reason in an adult-like or logical way (Ormrod 30). In this case, the stage emerges when children are about 2 years old. Essentially, Ormrod (29) indicates that there is evidenced rapid development among children; hence, they can easily think or talk of events, objects, and other activities beyond the immediate experiences. Irrespective of this aspect, Ormrod (29) indicates that the children lack the potentiality to reason logically in an adult-like way. Generaaly, Orrod (30) describes this step as one that children exhibit inability to see situations from other people’s perspectives. A perfect example that illustrates this stage is that of extensive and pretended play. Here the children engage in plays that involve pretense and that are extended.

Another example is that of intuitive thinking where children are provided with exercises that provoke their logical abilities.

Additionally, children in this stage often play games without even being sure if they are all using the same regulations. Besides, they may narrate stories while they leave essential details for listeners (Ormrod 30). To help foster this concept, the children enact imagery scenarios with assigned roles and plots such as mommy, superman, and daddy.

In the second example, children are exposed to several exercises, especially starting at age 4and primarily founded on intuition and hunches as opposed to conscious awareness regarding logical principles.
Concrete operations stage It is the third stage regarding cognitive development established by Piaget where the children have an adult-like reasoning with logic but limited to showcasing concrete reality (Ormrod 30).
Children can apply the concept of conservation Here, the children realize that regardless of addition or taking away of “nothing,” the amount remains the same even with alteration of shape or arrangement. This can be reinforced by water in a glass transferred into a bucket or plate and the children questioned of the volume.
Formal operations stage The fourth stage of Piaget’s cognitive development theory where there are processes of logical reasoning, which are applied to the abstract ideologies and concrete objects (Ormrod 29).

As depicted by Ormrod (29), this stage begins at age eleven or twelve where the children develop the capacities to apply logical reasoning to abstract ideologies, situations, and concrete objects. Additionally, these children can recognize that logical validity is different from real world situations (Ormrod 31). An example is when children develop realism. Here the children realize the real situations presented in the world and differentiate them from those of logical reasoning.

Another good example is the basketball-jellybeans problem where formal operational intellectuals assert that all children are jellybeans while in the real world children cannot be jellybeans (Ormrod 31). The children are provided with circumstances and asked to offer alternatives.

Cognizant of the example listed, it is clear that children should be provided with situations and instances where they are requested to suggest multiple hypotheses, separate, and control variables (Ormrod 31).
Assimilation This is the process whereby children deal with objects or events consistently using existing schemes (Ormrod 27). Accordingly, assimilation encompasses the aspects of children interpreting novel events that occur within their extant knowledge. Assimilation of a new teddy bear by a child that will help him/her to practice the scheme of putting things into the mouth.

In addition, a child might label a colleague’s clothe as being fashionable or outdated. This can be enhanced by modifying the schemes or forming novel schemes to aid in the assimilation procedure.

The aspect of recognizing events and objects as being different can be augmented by bringing on-board several activities that involve different things to ensure that the children can effectively assimilate their respective categories.
Accommodation Accommodation has reference to as a method of dealing with novel objects or events through modification of existing schemes or establishing new ones (Ormrod 27). Notably, accommodation and assimilation occur simultaneously as the children grow their knowledge and understanding. Besides, the children modify knowledge to fit to the varied situations. An example is modifying existing schemes. This can be facilitated by children changing schemes from one to the next; for instance where a child cannot apply the snake scheme and adopts the salamander scheme simply because the scheme requires legs. In essence, the children must relate the novel experiences to their respective knowledge base so as to maximally benefit from the activities.
Equilibration The process of changing from equilibrium to disequilibrium and then reverting back to the state of equilibrium (Ormrod 28). Indeed, equilibration fosters the progression towards the realization and usage of sophisticated thoughts.

According to Ormrod (28), Piaget notes that children’s intrinsic desires and the process of equilibration bolster the development of complex knowledge and thought levels. A perfect example can be that of the beads problem. Here, the instructor expects that the child draws two necklaces made of brown and wooden beads; in this case, the child goes for the longer beads, which does not fit the boxes outlined. As a result there emerges inconsistency that brown beads are more. The kid is then compelled to go back to the conclusion and revise it to make it consistent with the number of beads observed. To enhance the knowledge and thought that is complex among children, there is a need for the tutor to provide a myriad of activities that need the learner to make choices. For instance, the beads problem demands that the learners make consistent choices to the number of boxes drawn so that they can match those of the beads. As such, it is vital to increase the number of these exercises to foster thought and knowledge.
Role of diversity This is the function executed by the differences in abilities among individuals including personality and intelligence at specific ages within specific cultural or gender groups (Ormrod 118). Problems with complex levels of knowledge and thought This can be supported by the beads problem where a child is provided by beads of different colors to draw them to support their statements of inconsistency.
Vygotsky Social construction of meaning A situation where adults aid the children in drawing meanings out of events and object that they encounter. It is also termed as mediated learning. In this case, the adult has vast experience of the events and provides explanations to the learners when they cannot make correct interpretations. A talk about prehistoric exhibition. In this case, the children lack history to the things that they see, as such, the adult who has vast experience provides and understanding for them to derive meaning. The adult helps the child to have an understanding of the past in a museum by explaining the past events. To achieve high social construction of meaning, adults are advised to increase the number of events to various places so that the children can harness more experience to compare and draw meaning.
Mediated learning Mediated learning is the technique through which a discussion arises where an adult helps a child to derive sense from an event that is mutually experienced (Ormrod 41).
During the discussion between the learners and instructors, the experienced adult helps the children to learn more by mediating and explaining into detail. Encouraging children to define events that took place before they were born. This can be done by providing the children with historic events and objects and then guiding them through to make meaning. This can be illustrated by adults helping the children to understand history. Further, it can be achieved through providing a variety of such events and objects.
Internalization This is a process where leaners progressively incorporate socially constructed activities into their internal cognitive processes (Ormrod 39). Engaging in certain activities because of the external consequences such as completing schoolwork to be praised and avoid punishment. Can be assessed by offering autonomy towards decision-making among the children.
Inner speech Depicts inner speech as a technique of talking to with an aim of guiding oneself mentally as opposed to loud. It is introspective thinking to give oneself self-mediated direction (Ormrod 39). Directing oneself in various activities It can be fostered by increasing using cognitive tools such as events, objects, problems, and tasks.
Scaffolding This is a support mechanism, which aids learners to perform challenging tasks such as those that are in their region of proximal development (Ormrod 42). Developing plans The students or learners require help in the development of plans to complete novel tasks; for instance, breaking the plan into small activities for easier completion.
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) It is a variety of tasks that are performed by learners while being helped by others; however, these learners cannot perform these activities independently (Ormrod 39). In fact, there are activities that children can comfortably address on their own while there are others that they need guidance in accomplishing them. The apple-tarts problem during an opening case study. Allowing children of equal abilities to work jointly to solve the apple-tarts problem will help them develop and master skills
Role of diversity This is the purpose delivered by the differences observed among individuals of varied social groups. Allowing children to acquire varied skills that are within their zone of proximal development This can be attained by teaching different tasks since the learners have a variety of potentials where some might fail to accomplish tasks that others are well-equipped to handle


Work Cited
Ormrod, Jeanne, E. Educational psychology: developing learners. Boston: Pearson, 2014. Print.

October 20, 2021
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