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The race for civil rights started several years ago, characterized by activities including the Montogomery Bus Boycott, Southern Christian Leadership Convention, March on Washington, Independence Summer, and Montgomery March ("The 14th Amendment Explained: US Government Review", 2017). Ratified in July 1868, 'all people born or naturalized in the United States' were given citizenship by the 14th amendment. The hope of African Americans came true; for them, not only civil but political rights were made lawful. In events that African Americans termed ‘the second emancipation’, the law was later to be followed by the 19th amendment that allowed women to vote, and in 1954, the Brown Vs Board of Education case that outlawed segregation.
Significance of 19th Amendment to Civil Rights
Reduction in Racism, Gender Inequality and Other Human Rights
Section 2 of the act allowed all men and women of all races to be allowed to vote ("The 14th Amendment Explained: US Government Review", 2017). First, it exhibited America as a free nation by giving all citizens an equal chance to vote for their leaders towards achieving ‘the American Dream’. Secondly, it curbed gender discrimination which had become a major concern with regards to violation of human rights.
The law outlawed prejudiced individuals from holding office. These were people who were rebellious towards equal rights for blacks and whites as section 3 of the act held. Such people would cease to be legal officers. It is a human right not to be enslaved. Section 4 of the 14th Amendment refuted paying any debt or compensation to former slave owners. As such, it condemned slavery which had for long depicted moral decay in terms of human rights.
Brown Vs Board of Education
Five cases challenged the segregation of whites from blacks with respect to schools and were later consolidated into one, Brown Vs Board of Education ("Brown v. Board of Education (1954) | Separate Is NOT Equal", 2017). One white man argued that states could educate their children in whichever manner they so wished, citing that it amounted to ‘separate but equal’. The court held that desegregation was to be implemented and black children allowed to attend same schools as white children.
Most African Americans went to schools that were secluded, sometimes interior and with poor resources as compared to the white kids ("Brown v. Board of Education (1954) | Separate Is NOT Equal", 2017). Distinct locations were secluded for blacks and marked with inscriptions such as “Colored Waiting Room” or “Colored Only”. Finally, the law refuted segregation of black and white children. This allowed the African American children achieve access to resources similar to the white population, boosting their self esteem as well as quality of education, both civil rights that had been long yearned for.
Significance of 19th Amendment to Women
The 19th Amendment holds that no person should be blocked from voting irrespective of their gender ("History Brief: the 19th Amendment", 2017). The law was established on the 15th Amendment which provided that all citizens had the right to vote, seeing its consent finally in 1919. It exhibited significance to women.
At first women were not allowed to vote ("History Brief: the 19th Amendment", 2017). This law repudiated this civil wrong and enabled all sexes to express their rights. The amendment marked the advent of diminishing women’s suffrage. Women had all along been undermined in the United States. The passing of this law empowered them to begin the fight for social as well as economic equality such as equal pay, courses which is still on today as marked by Women’s’ Equality Day.
Brown v. Board of Education (1954) | Separate Is NOT Equal. (2017). YouTube. Retrieved 26 October 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aX9Dmo24_cc
History Brief: the 19th Amendment. (2017). YouTube. Retrieved 26 October 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=umctS43vVJI&feature=youtu.be
The 14th Amendment Explained: US Government Review. (2017). YouTube. Retrieved 26 October 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_fEjVzJqCkI&feature=youtu.be&list=ECD5CB52988D815420
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