The rationale of the Nesmith and Ruhland study

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The Nesmith and Ruhland Research

The Nesmith and Ruhland research on the children of imprisoned parents is justified by the fact that most studies do not consider victims' views or facts, instead of relying heavily on information provided by people who communicate with these children (Nesmith & Ruhland, 2008). As a consequence, much is unclear about the plight of these children from an analytical perspective (Nesmith & Ruhland, 2008).

The interviews for this research revealed five main themes: resilience, socioeconomic problems, sensitivity and knowledge of adult needs, jail conceptions, and the caregiver definition (Nesmith & Ruhland, 2008). On the social challenge concept, children faced difficulties in expressing the issues about one of the parents being in prison. Secondly, the interviewed children indicated a sense of awareness of the whole situation and saw the need to fill the gap for the imprisoned parent. Also, these children felt the need to maintain the relationship with incarcerated parent apart from being under caregivers. These children also seem to have a perception of prisons being a secured place that does not seem to be luxurious. Finally, coping with the situation is one of the major challenges outlined in the study showing children joining resiliency activities such as theatre.

The study recommends the use of community programs to increase awareness to limit some of the social challenges faced by these children. Also, the study recommends the establishment of plans to consider children's needs in the sentencing procedures (Nesmith & Ruhland, 2008).

Reading Response 10

Emojis are real images or symbols that exist in communication devices, and they originated from Japan (Schenker, 2016). Emojis were invented by Shigetaka Kurita, an employee of the NTT DoCoMo who wanted to fix the communication gap the Japanese mobile phone companies wanted to revolutionize using the i-mode (Schenker, 2016). According to Schenker (2016), Kurita felt that pagers robbed people of the ability to express or communicate their emotions with the digital platform leading to miscommunication and relationship breakdown. Therefore, with the use of pictures and characters, which are ideally subsets of emoji Kurita could fix the communication gap.

The entry of mobile companies such as Apple to the Kurita idea of emojis led to the extreme penetration of the emojis across the globe (Schenker, 2016). In that aspect, Apple made some modifications in the appearances of emojis to include gay couples and African American emojis. The impact of these changes was to depict the multicultural society in North America (Schenker, 2016).


Nesmith, A., & Ruhland, E. (2008). Children of incarcerated parents: Challenges and resiliency, in their own words. Children and Youth Services Review, 1119-1130.

Schenker, M. (2016, October 11). The Surprising History of Emojis. Retrieved from webdesignerdepot:

October 13, 2022

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