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Tilting the earth

The summer and winter seasons become even hotter and colder when the Earth is tilted at 350 degrees. We would only experience the seasons of fall and spring if they were not tilted at all. Because the sunlight they receive in the summer would be more direct, and the area that would not receive light in the winter would be significantly more significant, a more tilted Earth's axis could cause much warmer summers and more extreme winters in the polar regions of the Earth. Because of the tilting, there are more chances that the summer will melt the ice in the polar parts of the globe, endangering human health and the environment. It may cause a greater section of the land to submerge under water as the sea level rises from the melting ice melting.
In another word, the tilting causes the tropical regions to experience severe weather and climatic condition. The summer and winter temperature will go to the extreme. The extremity of winter temperature will cause the icebergs to appear in more seas and oceans of both the north and southern hemisphere. The scenario will prevail as the Arctic, and Antarctic regions will mostly face the sun primarily through the year. Also, the produced solar flares can be riskier since there will be a weak magnetic field area in the Arctic and Antarctic regions.

Question 2
Equinoxes and solstices are often used as newscaster facts for Calendars. For people in the northern hemisphere: Winter solstice is the period in December during which the sun reaches its southernmost latitude. During this time we experience the shortest day. The date is near 22nd December, and hence the shadow is north of Eduardo. The summer solstice occurs during in June when the sun reaches its northernmost latitude. The scenario means that the sun is overhead at midday along that tropical of cancer (23.5 o N). It implies that the Northern hemisphere is tampered towards the sun. During this period the sun rises higher into the sky, and it is visible for twenty-four hours at the Arctic Circle.
Additionally, the sun rises on the North of East and sets on North of West on the tropical of cancer. It is during this time when we have the longest day, and at midday, the sun's altitude is 900 (highest altitude). During the dates near the June 21st, the Shadow is south of him. On March 21st and 23rd September, the sun's path is similar in that it reaches its highest altitude in the sky. It is during this time in March that we experience the Vernal equinox as the sun passes the equator touching from the southern to the northern hemisphere.
The Vernal Equinox is the times when the sun is vertically overhead at mid-day along the equator, and for both the Antarctic and Arctic circles, the sun emerges from east and sets in the west. At this time, the day sun usually visible for twelve. Therefore, it implies that this the time that these regions (Antarctic and Arctic circles) have equal day and night (Day and night have almost the same length). During the Vernal Equinox and especially the dates is near 20 March, there is no shadow. During the period in September, the Autumnal equinox occurs. It happens when the sun crosses the equator moving from the northern to the southern hemispher e. The Day and the night have approximately the same length. The date is near 22 September and also experiences no shadow.
Question 3
The atmosphere contains four layers: the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. The troposphere forms the bottommost layer of the atmosphere. It is the layer where sample (A) air is taken, and it creates a section from where weather elements occur and from where life. The air temperature in the section reduces with altitude. The border within the stratosphere and the troposphere are known as the tropopause. The thickness of air of the troposphere differs with the site, being developed over warmer zones and lesser over colder parts. Beyond the tropopause is the stratosphere where sample (B) air is fetched.
The air temperature increases with increasing altitude. It is for the reason that the stratosphere contains the ozone layer. The layer tends to be warm since it rivets ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun. The mesosphere is also a possible source of the sample B-air. It exists above the stratosphere. The air temperature declines with increasing altitude just as it occurs in the troposphere. At this section, the air (sample B) contains proportions of oxygen and nitrogen like the troposphere, except the fact that there is little water vapor there and the concentrations are a thousand times less. Therefore, the air is too thin to sustain the weather to occurrences.
The gravitation forces pull the molecules that make up the atmosphere close to the earth's surface. It implies that sample (A) air has more air elements than sample B since the items tend to be concentrated at the face of the earth and become promptly lesser with the altitude. Air pressure is the degree of the load of the column of air molecules above each layer. Therefore, the sample (B) air that is up in the atmosphere has fewer molecules above it, and so its air pressure is lower. Also, even though the energy from the sun originates from the sky downwards, it is typically riveted by the ground. After that, the ground continuously discharges this energy in the form of heat in infrared light, so the atmosphere is substantially heated from the ground up, causing the sample (A) air from 2 Km to be warmer near the surface and the sample B air to be cooler higher up.
Question 4
The land heats and cools four times faster than the water, implying that the site of the Continental ocean water largely affects the distribution of the global air temperature and the directions and sources of air masses. For instance, the Coastal zones usually have the temperature characteristics of the water or land or water that exists on their windward face. In latitudes where there is a constant prevailing westerly wind, for instance, in the west shores of continents experiences oceanic temperatures and the east coasts experience continental temperatures. The flow of the wind usually determines the temperatures of the adjacent land. The top layer of the sea is almost continually in a state of mixing, with heat gains or heat losses taking place at the surface and dispersed all over a huge capacity of water.
The processing of mixing minimizes atmospheric temperature differences between the day and the night and between the winter and the summer in the marine areas. Conversely, there is virtually no turbulence redistribution of heat over land; also, there is a negligible impact of conduction. Therefore, the diurnal and vigorous seasonal contrast occurs in the interiors of continents. Winters, are cauterized to have a large incident of solar radiation being reflected back towards space because of the snow that extends and covers a large sect of the northern landmasses. The event causes the continents of the north to serve as the reservoir regions for dry polar air.
The difference in temperature between the water and the land surfaces that converses between two seasons regulates the patterns of the seasonal weather to a great extent. The isotherms in the Northern Hemisphere are spaced closely and parallel in winter than in summer. In the Southern Hemisphere, the temperature slope does not witness a considerable seasonal variation as for the case in the Northern Hemisphere. The settings result from the unequal spreading of water and land on the two hemispheres. The Southern Hemisphere has more water surface and less land as compared to the Northern Hemisphere. The change resulting from the more water surface is less with consequently more nearly uniform isotherms. Additionally, the continents found in Southern Hemisphere tilts to the poles and do not spread as far towards the pole like the continents in the Northern Hemisphere.
The structure and distribution of the land surface influence the local distribution heat. Also, the vegetation cover, texture, and Color affect the rate of cooling and heating. A wet surface will heat and cool slower than the dry surface. For example, cemented streets, cultivated grounds, and sandy coasts become warmer than surrounding wooded areas and meadows during the day. However, at night, this case is reversed. The supply of water vapor and the formation clouds is another significant feature impelling the global air temperature. Although regions that have a high ratio of dust covers possess the greater capacity of reflectivity, the energy, that is not reflected, is only trapped in the bottom stratum because of the to the greenhouse effect. Accordingly, the parts of high vapor capacity have the moderately high atmospheric temperature. The higher average temperature of the Northern Hemisphere is a result not only of the greater degree of land but also of the idea that its ocean currents are also warmer than those in the Southern Hemisphere are. It is partly because of the flow of warm equatorial waters from the Southern Hemisphere into the Northern Hemisphere caused by the South East trades crossing the equator. Another element necessary for the higher mean temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere is the incomplete safeguarding of its oceans from the cold waters of the polar regions and the land barriers of the Arctic ice. However, such obstacles do not exist between the southern oceans and Antarctic region.
Question 5
The atmospheric circulation pattern in the tropics that gives rise to winds known as the trade winds and the tropical easterlies is called the Hadley cell. The cell functions on the principles that, air rises near the equator or into the atmosphere a, moves to the polar areas over the Earth�s surface, returns to the surface of Earth�s to the global subtropics and returns to the equator. The flow of the air arises since the Sun heats the atmospheric air at the surface of Earth�s around the equator. The heated air rises to the atmosphere, generating a region of low pressure at the equator. The rising air spreads the upper layer of the troposphere at about 10-15 kilometers over the surface of the Earth and moves to the south and north poles. The Hadley cell finally turns back the air to the surface of the Earth in the subtropics, near 30 degrees south latitude or north.
The Air close to the face of the earth flows to the equator into the low-pressure ones, substituting the rising air. The created zone of low pressure and converging winds are called the Intertropical Convergence Zones (ITCZ). After that, the winds become the tropical easterlies or the trade winds as they are twisted to the west through Coriolis Effect. The air that returns to the earth�s surface in the subtropics builds a zone of high pressure known as the subtropical. It is the region in which the air masses were moving equatorward converge and rise. Within that area, thunderstorms develop a band high-precipitation that may lead to wet climates.
Hadley cell circulation loses most of its water vapor to condensation and precipitation in the upward branch of the descending, becomes air is dry and cause the dry climatic condition. As the air descends, low relative humidities are produced as the air is warmed adiabatically by compression from the overlying air, providing a region of higher pressure. The subtropics are relatively free of the convection, or thunderstorms, that are common in the equatorial belt. Many of the world's deserts are occur in these subtropical latitudes.
Question 6.
A tropical cyclone refers to the fast circling storm system that has a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, a low-pressure focus, and a coiled plan of thunderstorms which gives torrential rains. A tropical cyclone depends on its strength and location and is denoted by names like tropical, hurricane, typhoon, tropical depression, cyclonic storm, and simply cyclone. A typhoon prevails in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, A hurricane storm prevails in the northeastern Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean, and a hurricane is standard in the Indian or South Pacific Ocean.
The first condition for the formation of Tropical storms is large bodies of comparatively warm water. Tropical cyclones derive their energy by the evaporation of water from the surfaces of oceans or seas, which ultimately condenses to form clouds and rain when the rising moisture cools to the level of saturation. The sources of Tropical Cyclones different to that of the cyclonic storms in the mid-latitude, like the European windstorms and noreasters and, which are powered mainly by horizontal temperature contrasts. The circling winds of a tropical cyclone originate from the maintenance of angular movement from the rotation of as air moves inwards to the axis of rotation. Therefore, the Tropical cyclones hardly occur within 5° of the equator. The diameter of these hurricanes normally ranges between 100 and 2,000 km.
A tropical disturbance is another great meteorologist�s aspect for the occurrence of the Tropical cyclones. A tropical disturbance is also linked to a group of thunderstorms on warm tropical waters. Low-level winds spread over the disturbance and cause evaporation of water from the surface of the sea or ocean. The process transmits energy to from the ocean into the atmosphere. The winds reach the disturbance and rise and transfer the energy into the atmospheric air as they form various types of precipitation and clouds. The transmission warms the atmospheric air, making it buoyant, encouraging more moist air to flow in from the exterior. The air flows through the middle of the disturbance, it �spirals� or �curves,� instead of then moving in a straight line. The spiral effect is caused by another important condition, the Earth�s rotation.
Hurricanes occur both in the Atlantic basin, to the east of the continental United States (that is, the Caribbean Sea, in the Gulf of Mexico, and in the Atlantic), and in the Northeast Pacific basin, to the west of the United States. The Northeast Pacific hurricanes almost never hit the United States, though. However, the Atlantic basin hurricanes strike the Unite States mainland averagely less than twice a year. The first for this disparity is that storms that occur in the northern hemisphere build at subtropical and tropical latitudes and subsequently incline to flow to the west-northwest. However, In the Atlantic zone, this movement often brings the hurricane into the surroundings of the East Coast of the United States in the Northeast Pacific, the same west-northwest path transfers hurricanes past offshore, well away from the Unite States West Coast.
The second element is the variation in water temperatures along the United States West and East coasts. Besides the East Coast, the Gulf Stream offers a basis of warm (approximately above 26.5 degrees Celsius or 80 degrees Fahrenheit) waters, which supports to sustain the storm. However, to the West Coast, the temperatures of the ocean surface hardly increase above the lower the low 20s C (70s F), even in the average season of the summer. Therefore, the comparatively cool temperatures do not offer sufficient thermal energy to sustain a hurricane's strength. Consequently, the seasonal Northeast Pacific hurricane that does track back toward the United States encounters the cooler waters of the Pacific, which can rapidly minimize the storm's power

August 09, 2021


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