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Urban Pollution Paper

In cities and towns, there are several different types of pollution. Dust, greenhouse emissions released into the environment, chemical wastes transported to rivers, and noise pollution from factories and automobiles are all common pollutants. These contaminants have harmful implications for the natural world, living organisms, and humans. Inhalation of polluted air has been related to certain human diseases such as respiratory and chest disorders. Noise pollution is linked to stress and blood pressure fluctuations in humans. Untreated wastes released into rivers that drain to the high seas typically destroy marine animals and plants. As a result, the environment will be disrupted. To manage all these forms of pollution there are certain measures that need to enacted with an immediate effect in order to curb current and future hazards arising from pollution? To manage air pollution for example, there is need to for industries that emit harmful gases to use thermal oxidizers, dust collection systems and scrubbers. Sewage needs to be fully treated before being released to the rivers. Waste water as well must be treated through ultrafiltration, powdered activated carbon treatment and bio- filters. All these measures are very important since when implemented, they minimize the adverse effects arising from the pollutants. The environment will be kept clean and ideal for survival of all; the leaving organisms. Towns as the center of concern in this case will be conducive for human habitation. This paper thus examines the nature of pollution in urban areas and the possible remedies for the same.

Background

Pollution has to do with introducing chemical as well other forms of contaminants to the natural environment, leading to adverse effects. Some of the pollutants in urban areas include; chemicals wastes, noise, heat and even light. Visual pollution is currently taking concern and is being categorized among the forms of pollution in the urban areas. Otherwise the biggest pollutants are the noise and chemicals being released nearly day and night in the cities and towns.

Air pollution that is rampant in towns is as a result of chemical substances released from the factories, industries, burning of coal and waste tires, and most all is the release by the vehicles. The resultant products of the activities include the release of carbon monoxide, Sulphur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons nitrogen oxides, smog and ozone. Chemical wastes from the same factories are released to the rivers and adjacent streams. Noise is another form of pollution which encompass the highway noise, aircraft noise and the industrial noise.

In general, all these forms of pollution have negative effects not only on human but also on the environment and its components. Human respiratory problems, cardiovascular diseases and chest pain and congestion have been linked to air pollution. Besides this, water pollution by untreated sewage has resulted in waterborne diseases. Statistics shown that in China for example, an estimate of 1.2 million people each year die prematurely because of drinking contaminated water. Oil spills is another one causing skin rashes and associated irritation. Extreme noise has been associated with high blood pressure, stress and sleep disturbance.

As an intervention, several practices are now being considered the best forms corrective measures to curb the associated effects of pollution. Such practices include; recycling, waste minimization, mitigating and prevention.

Annotated Bibliography

Berry, B. J., & Horton, F. E. (2015). Urban Environmental Management Planning For Pollution Control. An Original Text with Integrated Readings.

This resource has been considered very relevant for this study because of the technical approaches provided therein on the strategic planning to manage urban pollution. Berry takes examples of the working techniques currently in application in China and India. Management of air pollution basically by means of thermal oxidizers has been described in regard to performance, benefits and the associated importance.

Khafaie, M. A., Yajnik, C. S., Salvi, S. S., & Ojha, A. (2016). CRITICAL REVIEW OF AIR POLLUTION HEALTH EFFECTS WITH SPECIAL CONCERN ON RESPIRATORY HEALTH. Journal of Air Pollution and Health, 1(2), 123-136.

This online resource is very essential regarding to the study at hand. The information on the critical review of air pollution is provided and is very significant for this exercise. One of the relevant ideas brought out by Khafaie and the colleagues is on management of dust in towns, as one of the chief air pollutants. The idea of Baghouses, the Cyclones and the Electrostatic Precipitators has been made plain and that these measures are best in saving the situation in regard to air pollution.

Miller, R. W., Hauer, R. J., & Werner, L. P. (2015). Urban forestry: planning and managing urban greenspaces. Waveland press.

For this exercise, this resource plays a major as it bears information on an alternative approach towards managing air pollution in Towns. This information source is valid and reliable considering the reviews on it by many users doing research in the same field. The so called alternative means to regulate air pollution in tows as brought out by Miller et al, is that trees play a great deal in detoxifying atmospheric air in towns.

Shi, L., Zanobetti, A., Kloog, I., Coull, B. A., Koutrakis, P., Melly, S. J., & Schwartz, J. D. (2016). Low-concentration PM2. 5 and mortality: estimating acute and chronic effects in a population-based study. Environmental health perspectives, 124(1), 46.

For this study, this resource has been chosen on grounds of information reliability and the context. Shi and the rest give material findings of the study done in town on the issue of pollution and the consequential effects on human health. The authors give an explicit information on how contaminated air is a potential hazard to the well of human respiratory system. Besides majoring on human breathing system a highlight of other human body parts greatly affected by the environmental pollutants is made.

Elsom, D. (2014). Smog alert: managing urban air quality. Routledge.

The above source of information has been selectively considered for this exercise because of the target explanation on the modern interventions on how manage the quality of urban air. Elsom is using direct description of the working measures that have been implemented in other countries and proved to fully change the atmospheric conditions of urban air especially in China and South Korea. The choice of this resource is thus based on availability of the desired information therein as well as the fact the same information is believed to be valid and reliable since the resource is latest.

Ierodiakonou, D., Zanobetti, A., Coull, B. A., Melly, S., Postma, D. S., Boezen, H. M., & Hallstrand, T. S. (2016). Ambient air pollution, lung function, and airway responsiveness in asthmatic children. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 137(2), 390-399.

The resource above is very crucial and significant for this exercise considering the idea that the primary objective is to define the problematic issues of pollution as a leeway for finding the corrective measures for the same. Jerodiakonou and his author colleagues is relating current human illness to the rising levels of pollution in the city. The material also goes ahead to describe the best remedies to counter the associated effects of pollution. Being up to date, the material is reliable.

Qin, H. P., He, K. M., & Fu, G. (2016). Modeling middle and final flush effects of urban runoff pollution in an urbanizing catchment. Journal of Hydrology, 534, 638-647.

The material has been considered for this study based on the material knowledge underlying therein. Given in this resource are the adverse effects of untreated waste being released to the rivers. Interventions on managing water pollutants are also provided including; ultrafiltration, dissolved air floatation, powdered activated carbon treatment and use of bio-filters.

Diem, J. E., Coleman, L. B., Digirolamo, P. A., Gowens, C. W., Hayden, N. R., Unger, E. E., ... & Williams, H. A. (2004). Comments on “Rainfall Modification by Major Urban Areas: Observations from Space borne Rain Radar on the TRMM Satellite”. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 43(6), 941-950.

This resource is fits the best to the study at hand as Diem gives the advanced effects of air pollution especially from the industries in major cities. Diem describes the timely changes in the patterns of rain due to the destruction of ozone layer by air pollutants. There is a highlight on global warming. The material being latest is thus valid and reliable for this research.

O'Riordan, T. (2014). Environmental science for environmental management. Routledge.

The above resource being latest is considered useful for this research exercise. O’Riordan is giving several alternatives towards managing both air and water pollution originating from towns. The reviews from various users indicate that material is ideal for this work.

Liu, P., Wang, X., Fan, J., Xiao, W., & Wang, Y. (2016). Effects of Air Pollution on Hospital Emergency Room Visits for Respiratory Diseases: Urban-Suburban Differences in Eastern China. International journal of environmental research and public health, 13(3), 341.

The resource has been chosen because of the reliability and necessity of the information it bears. Liu compares the prevalence of respiratory diseases in urban and remote areas of China and draws a boundary showing that indeed people living in urban areas suffer the most in regard respiratory problems. The resource proceeds to give remedies to the air pollutants causing human respiratory problems.

References

Berry, B. J., & Horton, F. E. (2015). Urban Environmental Management Planning For Pollution Control. An Original Text with Integrated Readings.

Diem, J. E., Coleman, L. B., Digirolamo, P. A., Gowens, C. W., Hayden, N. R., Unger, E. E., ... & Williams, H. A. (2004). Comments on “Rainfall Modification by Major Urban Areas: Observations from Space borne Rain Radar on the TRMM Satellite”. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 43(6), 941-950.

Elsom, D. (2014). Smog alert: managing urban air quality. Routledge.

Ierodiakonou, D., Zanobetti, A., Coull, B. A., Melly, S., Postma, D. S., Boezen, H. M., & Hallstrand, T. S. (2016). Ambient air pollution, lung function, and airway responsiveness in asthmatic children. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 137(2), 390-399.

Joplin, A. (2013). Life-space for the lifespan: A mixed methods exploration of aging in the environment (Doctoral dissertation, WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY).

Khafaie, M. A., Yajnik, C. S., Salvi, S. S., & Ojha, A. (2016). CRITICAL REVIEW OF AIR POLLUTION HEALTH EFFECTS WITH SPECIAL CONCERN ON RESPIRATORY HEALTH. Journal of Air Pollution and Health, 1(2), 123-136.

Kumar, P., Morawska, L., Martani, C., Biskos, G., Neophytou, M., Di Sabatino, S., & Britter, R. (2015). The rise of low-cost sensing for managing air pollution in cities. Environment international, 75, 199-205.

Lin, T., Gibson, V., Cui, S., Yu, C. P., Chen, S., Ye, Z., & Zhu, Y. G. (2014). Managing urban nutrient biogeochemistry for sustainable urbanization. Environmental Pollution, 192, 244-250.

Liu, P., Wang, X., Fan, J., Xiao, W., & Wang, Y. (2016). Effects of Air Pollution on Hospital Emergency Room Visits for Respiratory Diseases: Urban-Suburban Differences in Eastern China. International journal of environmental research and public health, 13(3), 341.

McKenna, B. (2016). Confronting Tyranny in a Public Health Agency: Crafting a ‘Philosophy of Praxis’ into a ‘Community of Resistance’. Anthropology in Action, 23(1), 31-38.

Miller, R. W., Hauer, R. J., & Werner, L. P. (2015). Urban forestry: planning and managing urban greenspaces. Waveland press.

O'Riordan, T. (2014). Environmental science for environmental management. Routledge.

Qin, H. P., He, K. M., & Fu, G. (2016). Modeling middle and final flush effects of urban runoff pollution in an urbanizing catchment. Journal of Hydrology, 534, 638-647.

Shi, L., Zanobetti, A., Kloog, I., Coull, B. A., Koutrakis, P., Melly, S. J., & Schwartz, J. D. (2016). Low-concentration PM2. 5 and mortality: estimating acute and chronic effects in a population-based study. Environmental health perspectives, 124(1), 46.

Yichuan, W. A. N. G., ZHANG, Y., Xinhong, H. E. I., Wenjiang, J. I., & Weigang, M. A. (2017). Game strategies for distributed denial of service defense in the Cloud of Things. Journal of Communications and Information Networks, 1(4), 143-155.

September 21, 2021

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