about curriculum issues

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A school's curriculum is crucial in ensuring that all children and teenagers receive high-quality education and in outlining policies that encourage education that pertains to overall development. By determining the substantial extent to which pedagogy is comprehensive through curriculum development, it serves a crucial purpose in guaranteeing that the provisions are provided evenly. This curriculum includes some formation for the rule of essential training, especially in cases when the instructors may be underqualified and inexperienced, the classrooms may be underfunded, and the students may need the earlier frameworks to establish their past knowledge (VanRijsbergen, 2013). Besides, it is through this curriculum that they can articulate both the competencies that are important for a lifetime lore and the competencies that are required for the holistic advancement. As a result, the development of curriculum sprawls at the intersections of four fundamental aspects which involve; comprehensive and just, portrayed by quality learning, fostering lifetime learning and appropriate to the holistic advancement. Therefore curriculum provides the way in which it bridges education and development. Additionally, the development of curriculum takes into consideration the attainment of quality levels of the teachers, the scope and effectiveness of schooling, learning and evaluation systems (Brady, 2012). The curriculum has some theories and models that govern on how the system of education is operated as illustrated below.

Through curriculum theory, they connates in interpreting the established knowledge that is real and full of facts in which it gives valuable knowledge to the learners (Brady, 2012). There are some theories whereby the valid educational approach gives acceptable assumptions that are aimed at correcting and giving checkable expertise and the verification of the effectiveness of various methods.

One of the theories that involve curriculum entails the philosophy of Jen Jacques Rousseau; whereby he was a philosopher who believed that kids should not be seen as diminutive adults instead he suggested that they are supposed to be considered organisms that are undergoing through the different stages of developmental processes. The philosopher posted a question stating that the educators are supposed to ask questions concerning the nature of the kids and learning should, therefore, be given guidance by the child's affair and that the learners have sovereignty; further, the child must be prepared to endure for the physical values of his/her behavior (VanRijsbergen, 2013).

Based on John Dewey he was a utilitarian philosopher whereby he trusted that there is a need for the original inquiries into expertise steered to actual life issues. From John, he said that positive thoughts start with a problematic situation. Further, the philosopher said the teachers must be susceptible to innovation and exceptions, thus they must explore to be inventive in administering with the challenges. From his point of view is that reality cannot be isolated from generation and so the kids should be in the physical situation to be able to facilitate the social relations, and the teacher must promote liberal education.

Focusing on the various curriculum models they act a blueprint of the curriculum in which it a little representation that summarizes data and techniques which assist the student to have a harmony of the whole set within a short time. Further through the utilization of various models, they facilitate the theory in supporting in developing the curriculum craft. The models are used in four divisions;

Physical Model

In this model, it acts a functioning model whereby it has three-dimensional mechanism whereby they show how things operate as a bunch of colored balls that are used in chemistry course to reveal the formation of the molecules

Conceptual Model

In this type, it sometimes termed as the verbal model whereby it has the verbalized thought which struck to marvels as an assistant to an embodiment. This model might be sociological whereby the orders and games metaphors thus the students are considered as raw material prepared in the factory

Mathematical Model

In this model, it is the most elaborate model in which it reduces the phenomena to mathematical expressions like the chemical equations

Graphical Model

Under this model, it involves the issues of drawings and diagrams which makes it possible for the students to learn through visual means to be able to define the elements of the thing being paraded and to be able to explain the connections among its components.

From the above four categories of models, they allow a quick comprehension of curriculum components and provides the essential pillars in creating through a presentation of puzzles that need to be examined in data and in presenting hints to possible solutions. As a result of any curriculum development, it is essential to use the form as a device for arousing the study and intellectual construct (VanRijsbergen, 2013). Additionally, there are other models that express how the teaching should be conducted which are considered below

MacDonald's Model

Under this paradigm, it portrays the curriculum as one of the interacting policies that entails practices for instance teaching, learning, and instruction. Whereby the teaching describes a personality systems that involve a tutor in making his expert tasks, studying as added character order wherein the learners complete task-relevant actions or behaviors which contribute studying. The model is illustrated in the figure below.

From the picture, it shows the feature of congruence where the curriculum intentions are efficient in the fragmentary perspective through the auspices of useful teaching exercise as evidenced by the altered behavior or training of scholars. As a result, this form produces light to the connection between the pedagogy and training, direction and in curriculum as a peculiar system

John's Model of the dynamics of curriculum and instruction system

Through this form, it shows a curriculum advancement manner in which it can be envisioned as the structure set of predetermined results and later toils as data for the instructional order. Therefore by using the curriculum, it acts as a model and an instructional mode which uses the conducive content and teacher's behavior to be able to secure learning results. Further through the model, it acts in enhancing the guidance in the static description (Tomei, 2013). The model is well illustrated in the figure below.

Zais' Eclectic Model

This form of curriculum strives to display in static spans the curriculum elements and the principal strengths that impact its core and intention. Its primary affair is to reveal the principle variable and their connections graphically that administrators required consider in curriculum development.

Under this model it contains four components;

1. Intentions, purposes, aspirations

2. Content

3. Lore exercises

4. Evaluation

The model is well illustrated as shown in the figure below.

A good quality curriculum is usually achieved through the involvement of the following processes;

Planned and systematic

Inclusive and consultative

Led by curriculum professionals

Cyclical in nature


Planned and Systematic

Under this scheme the extension of the curriculum is supposed to accompany a lucid and candidly recognized means with well-maintained curriculum thought. Planning should include some issues for instance a sequence workshops, drafting and consultative operations, enhancement of schedules, needed expertise and expected costs.

Inclusive and consultative

Usually, when developing the curriculum document, it is essential to ensure that the documents have a national value. Whereby the document is supposed to reflect the progressive cultural implications and the country's aspiration. Further, the records are supposed to involve range of group that have the legitimate concern and in the advancement of which they should, therefore, have a voice. As a result it not recommended developing curriculum document behind closed doors. Thus proper degree curriculum advancement process not only recognize these authentic stakeholder concerns but also in a fair custom and a sense of plurality. As a result, it is critical to have an accessible and participatory curriculum means to be able to serve and intensify social and artistic sustainability (VanRijsbergen, 2013).

Therefore the inclusive and consultative curriculum development process assist in finding appropriate balances among a range of stakeholders. Thereby involving consultation in the curriculum development seeks to build a consensus which acts as a foundation of any curriculum conceptualization.

Led by curriculum professionals

Curriculum development is conducted and managed by the qualified and experienced professional. These professionals help in guaranteeing that the curriculum expansion takes tale of analysis and drifts nationally and globally

Cyclical in Nature

Curriculum development occurs typically in a continuous process since the curricula are developed to bring change to the society. As a result good curricula are supposed to keep step with the society in which information is swiftly growing.


During the development of the curriculum process, they are supposed to be viable, given that curriculum growth is vigorous and advancing method and an instructional system that guarantee leadership means and expertise to be able to assure that the curriculum can constantly be assessed and advanced (VanRijsbergen, 2013).

After the curriculum has been developed, it follows the implementation stage in which a good feature curriculum entails and places transparent expectations one




Parents and employers

Education systems and authorities


In the implementation of the curriculum, the students are supposed to be occupied in and be patrons to teaching, training and evaluation mean. As a result, the real learning needs a genuine engagement therefore for the students to learn well they are required to consciously make relationships between established and new familiarity and abilities to be able to utilize the newly gained awareness and ability to a real situation and to be able to value what they have acquired. Therefore for a quality curriculum it should encourage and expect the student to;

Comprehend the meaning of classroom exercises and be able to engage actively in them

Be prepared to understand what they will learn and the meaning of that study, the various expectation of theme and how they will see that they have learned well

To be open to innovation

To be curious and amenable to ask question


A teacher is a key element in the implementation of the curriculum in the need to meet the learning needs of the children. As a result during the implementation of the curriculum, the teachers are supposed to be presented with direction on how to shape learning and the improvement on the sorts of classroom learning exercises that bring the curriculum to life.


The institution is supposed to know the content of the curriculum and to be able to make the administration choices within their areas of accountability to help its transmission. Further, they are supposed to assist and support instructors in embracing new and innovative pedagogy practices. Additionally, the school leaders are required to make time for lore leaders to examine the curriculum and its implementation (Marsh, 2012).

Lastly, when the curriculum has been implemented efficiently, the evaluation process follows where it is based to determine the effectiveness of the curricula to the students, the school, and the surrounding society.


Brady, L. (2012). Curriculum Models and Curriculum Commonplaces. Journal Of Curriculum Studies, 14(2), 197-200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0022027820140207

Butler, J., & Walter, J. (2011). Transforming the curriculum. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Cornbleth, C. (2010). Curriculum in context. London: Falmer Press.

Curriculum issues. (2010). [Missoula, Mont.].

Loepp, F. (2015). Models of Curriculum Integration. The Journal Of Technology Studies, 25(2). http://dx.doi.org/10.21061/jots.v25i2.a.6

Marsh, C. (2012). Key concepts for understanding curriculum. London: Falmer Press.

Ornstein, A., & Hunkins, F. Curriculum.

Ornstein, A., Pajak, E., & Ornstein, S. Contemporary issues in curriculum.

Tomei, L. (2013). Challenges of teaching with technology across the curriculum. Hershey, Pa.: Information Science.

VanRijsbergen, C. (2013). Curriculum issues. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

February 09, 2023

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