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In essence, adrenal glands are triangular-shaped organs, which are vital to the wellbeing of any individual. They appear as a pair and measure approximately 1.5 inches in height, with a yellowish color. They are located above the kidneys; as such, they are two, each with two distinct parts; there location is due to their strong influence on the functions of the kidneys. The outer and inner parts of the adrenal glands are the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla respectively. These parts are responsible for the production of hormones, which are crucial in as far as ensuring internal process such as metabolism and regulation of blood pressure are completed effectively.it is of the essence to recognize the fact that if the adrenal glands do not produce sufficient hormones, a person can suffer from Addison’s disease (Kathleen DeLeskey, 2016). Moreover, these glands may develop nodules, which can be malignant and that might trigger production of an excessive amount of certain hormones, an aspect that leads to various health problems.
Essentially, adrenal glands do secrete different hormones that are directly released into the bloodstream; these hormones enable the body to burn proteins and fats, control of blood sugar and react to stress. Adrenal glands modulate the functioning of every organ, gland and tissue in the body in efforts to maintain homeostasis during stress and support life. As such, these glands determine the energy of the body’s responses to changes in the external and internal environments of the human body. As a consequence, the body is able to deal with stress from a wide range of sources, which include injury, attack, disease and even relationship problems (Rosol, Yarrington, Latendresse, & Capen, 2001). Primarily, the two parts of the adrenal glands, the cortex and medulla have separate functions; the former produces two main hormones; cortisol and aldosterone, while the hormones secreted by the latter include adrenaline and noradrenaline.
As mentioned above, adrenal glands have two parts, the cortex and medulla where each produces distinct hormones for different purposes in the human body. These chemicals produced serve to make sure that an individual is healthy. Cortisol, which is one of the hormones produced by the adrenal cortex helps manage and monitor how the body utilizes proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Moreover, it plays a significant role in regulating blood pressure, suppress inflammation, increase blood sugar and decrease bone hormones. During times of stress, the adrenal glands produce cortisol in efforts to give the body an energy boost; as a consequence, an individual is able to handle stressful situations in a better manner (Kathleen DeLeskey, 2016). Aldosterone, another hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex regulates blood pressure and helps regulate the blood pH; to achieve this, the hormone regulates and controls the level of electrolytes in the blood.
Adrenal medulla does not serve any major function in as far as a running internal process is concerned; however, it produces several hormones after the nervous system is stimulated. When a person is frightened or encounters a threatening situation, these hormones produced by the adrenal medulla helps a person deal with such circumstances effectively. Adrenaline plays a vital role in increasing the heart rate and rushing blood to the brain and muscles in response to stress. In addition, this hormone helps increase the blood sugar level by rapidly converting glycogen to glucose; this process takes place in the liver. Noradrenaline is another hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla, which also helps the human body to deal with stress; to achieve this, noradrenaline works with epinephrine. However, it is crucial to recognize that this hormone is dangerous as it can bring about the narrowing of blood vessels, an aspect that can result in high blood pressure (Rosol, Yarrington, Latendresse, & Capen, 2001). Evidently, the adrenal glands have a multi-function role in the endocrine system, which involves regulation and maintenance of many internal processes in the human body.
Kathleen DeLeskey, D. N. P. (2016). The Endocrine System. Perianesthesia Nursing Care, 265.
Rosol, T. J., Yarrington, J. T., Latendresse, J., & Capen, C. C. (2001). Adrenal gland: structure,
function, and mechanisms of toxicity. Toxicologic pathology, 29(1), 41-48.
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