Comparative Study of Roman and Greek Civilization

176 views 5 pages ~ 1298 words
Get a Custom Essay Writer Just For You!

Experts in this subject field are ready to write an original essay following your instructions to the dot!

Hire a Writer

The idea of the hero in Greek literature is considered essential in the history of the Greeks. The hero is characterized by many traits such as strength, bravery, and charisma. In his study, Stevanović (9) outline that in Greek, heroes are considered as the offspring of various gods thus receive many favors. However, sufferings experienced by the hero is due to his or her flaws. Heroes are like gods hence exceptional in several ways. For instance, they provided judgment among conflicting families and decided on when to engage in war with rivalry communities. In their study Perry, Micha and Rebekka (6) assert that the heroes mediated to gods about various severe natural disasters like droughts and famine. The Greeks honored their heroes with sacrifices and songs. However, despite their superhuman accomplishments and attributes, heroes experienced immense struggles and challenges thus died premature or violent deaths.

Importance of Heroic Concept in Greek Culture

Embrace of mortality

Mortality is dominant in the genetic constitution and makes up of heroes thus all their predecessors and descendants are considered mortal. However, Stevanović (11) argues that some like Heracles who was restored to life were granted immortality after the excruciating death.

Superhuman Abilities and Traits

Owing to the celestial parentage system, heroes regularly adored superhuman abilities that assisted them to accomplish insurmountable objectives. For instance, high strength is a necessity among heroes. For example, the Athenian hero is mainly famous for struggling and winning against horrible enemies. In several cases, individuals tried and failed to achieve the great tasks completed by Greek heroes. In his study, Nisinson (19) outline that heroes are respected because they show physical courage, generosity, loyalty, and martial prowess. For instance, King Arthur served as one of the greatest heroes in the middles ages who rescued damsels and fought strange beasts.


The Greek art mainly consists of pottery, metalwork, painting,  design, architecture, figurines, and monumental sculpture. In his study, Eisenstadt (439) outline that the Greek theatre involved festivals and celebrations with Athens being the main center for several theatrical celebrations. Roman art involves mosaic work, architecture, painting, and sculpture. The auditorium is the Romans’ theatre where individuals gather for festivals.

Idealism-The Polis

The poleis are typical structures of society in Greek culture. The polis consists of urban centers, regular fortified with the sacred centers constructed on the natural harbor or acropolis that effectively controlled the surrounding territory of the land (Vlastos, 512). The poleis were governed by an assembly of citizens.


Socrates is one of the leading and essential philosophers of the ancient Greece who mainly focused on the epistemology. Socrates became more famous because of the western philosophy and shaping of intellectual, and cultural development of the globe. According to Vlastos (498), Socrates believed in freedom of individuals to participate in many activities that helped in developing the society.


According to philosophy, creativity describes three core things. These include activity or procedure, product, or an individual. Creativity significantly pervades the human life. Consequently, creativity serves as the mark of individuality and a mechanism of self-expression, and the primary engine of progress in every person’s life. Creativity originates from directing and awakening a man’s higher natures and continues from within, out of inexplicable and immeasurable depths.

Competition as Virtue-Olympics

The race supports and nurtures various virtues such as temperance, honesty, civility, and industriousness. Olympics is one of the creativity across the world that enhances competition as a virtue. Olympics is considered non-violent competition thus virtuous. Olympics unite people and promotes talents, therefore, regarded as a virtue of competition hence should be continuously observed.

Strength as Virtue-Homer

There are four chief Greek virtues. These include temperance, courage, justice, and prudence. However, Homeric has a unique view of morality by holding the distinct value of strength. For instance, the force of Achilles. The Homeric outline that an individual must be physically fit to handle various tasks

Differences Between Roman and Greek Civilizations

Romans and Greeks impacted and influenced one another. Perry, Micha, and Rebekka (4) assert that the two countries mostly interacted via trade at Mediterranean and black seas zones. Despite many similarities, there exist variations between these two nations. For instance, Rome developed by conquest, whereas Athens developed using sea trade. Greeks and other people from various countries believe that much of activities and services practiced by Romans are adopted and derived from the ancient Greek civilization, nonetheless with minor variations


Roman women perform much better than the Greek women who were sequestered under challenging situations. Consequently, Latin women have limited roles, but with much freedom of speech and movement than Greek women. For instance, roman women have rights to property, to divorce and remarry, whereas Greek women were limited to these rights. There are many common roman matrons known for public figures; many eminent Greek women are either courtesans or queens.

Forms of Government

Greek has four types of government. These include tyranny, Oligarchy where the ruling power is based on few leaders. Additionally, geeks practice democracy and monarchy. Rome has three different forms of administration. These include republic, empire, and sovereignty. The three primary parts of Rome administration are assemblies, consuls and Senate.

Social Structure

 Social structures for Romans and Greeks significantly highlight the variations in their transformation and development. Greece social structure is characterized by the high and middle class. The middle class is mainly made of merchants, contractors, manufacturers, artisans, artists, and tradespeople. However, the social class in Rome is hierarchical and was established by the ancestry. Three primary social level of Roman republic are plebeians, slaves and patricians whereas Greeks have four social classes (Eisenstadt, 423). These include the Athens as the highest class, the Metics who are the middle class, Freemen who were slaves and later freed. Lastly, slaves who were rescued from war thus serves as the lowest class.

Foreign Policy

Greece’s international strategy is commonly aligned with that of the European Union partners of maintaining full diplomatic, economic and political relations with the southeast neighbors. According to Perry, Micha and Rebekka (12), topping the policy agenda are concerns of fundamental political interests like Greek-Turkish associations, the Cyprus concerns and the GNM (Greek national minority in Albania). Rome’s foreign policy is to enhance effective relations with more nations across the globe for active peace and co-existence of human beings.

Polis Verse Imperium

In Rome, polis is referred to imperium to mean the inferior form of power and a formal concept of the legalized authority (Freeman, 654). In Greek, polis is small city-countries comprising of central urban areas. Roman polis is ethnically and linguistically diverse, while Greek poleis (polis) are ethnically and linguistically uniform.

In conclusion Heroes were men and occasional women who possess god-like characteristics. They mediated with the gods and provided leadership on behalf of particular communities. However, despite their superhuman accomplishments and attributes, heroes experienced immense struggles and challenges thus died premature or violent deaths. Nonetheless, their pain and sufferings led to fame after their death. Romans and Greeks have several similarities in their activities and services. However, they exhibit significant differences. In Rome, women perform much better as compared to Greece. Greeks have four types of government while Romans have three. Consequently, Romans have more social structures than the Greeks. Therefore, western civilization created significant variations between the Greeks and Romans.

Works cited

Eisenstadt, Shmuel N. The political systems of empires. Routledge, 2017

Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece, and Rome: civilizations of the ancient Mediterranean. Oxford University Press, 2014.(1-784)

Nisinson, Nathalie Sado. Greek Heroes, Roman Rituals: Cult and Culture Clash in Ovid's" Heroides". Diss. New York University, 2017

Perry, Micha J., and Rebekka Voß. "Approaching Shared Heroes: Cultural Transfer and Transnational Jewish History." Jewish History 30.1-2 (2016): 1-13.

Stevanović, Lada. "Human or Superhuman: the Concept of Hero in Ancient Greek Religion and/in Politics∗." Гласник Етнографског института САНУ 56.2 (2018): 7-22.

Vlastos, Gregory. "I. The Historical Socrates and Athenian Democracy." Political Theory 11.4 (1983): 495-516.

November 13, 2023



Ancient Greece

Number of pages


Number of words




This sample could have been used by your fellow student... Get your own unique essay on any topic and submit it by the deadline.

Eliminate the stress of Research and Writing!

Hire one of our experts to create a completely original paper even in 3 hours!

Hire a Pro