Covert Observations in Social Science Research

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Observing people in a covert manner is a method of social science research. This type of research entails the researcher entering into a group and not making his or her status known to the group. The researcher will then attempt to collect and analyze data about the group.

Participant observation vs unobtrusive observation

Despite its reputation for obfuscation, unobtrusive observation has its perks. It allows researchers to take a step back from the action and see what's really going on. It also helps researchers get a feel for the environment. In particular, unobtrusive observation has the oh-so-familiar distinction of being the de facto best way to obtain unbiased data on the human condition. It also comes with its share of headaches.

There's no getting around it, unobtrusive observation is not a cheap undertaking. It can also be a hassle to get participants to comply with an experiment or two. Fortunately, there's a multitude of software solutions on the market that can help researchers wrangle the unruly beasts. Of course, the name of the game is getting the best participants. Fortunately, researchers are oftentimes willing to put up with the headaches in return for the reward of a more rounded sex match. If you're looking for a way to get more out of your experiments, consider using pseudonyms to protect your participant's privacy.

Ethics of covert observation

Having been around for centuries, covert observation is no stranger to the social sciences. While the benefits of the study are many, the drawbacks abound. For instance, participants may well be wary of being recorded for any length of time. For this reason, covert observation is usually only conducted in situations where the participants may not have a desire for such an undertaking.

As is the case with any form of research, covert observation comes with its fair share of drawbacks. While the advantages of covert observation may be few and far between, the drawbacks of conducting this type of study can be mitigated by following a few simple steps. The most important step is to ensure that participants are not only willing but also eager to participate in the study. A more prudent approach is to enlist the aid of a research consultant who has worked with participants with similar backgrounds. Fortunately, there are plenty of such professionals available.

Hawthorne effect

Often referred to as a "performance bias," the Hawthorne effect is a phenomenon in which individuals change their behavior or perform better when they are observed. The phenomenon has been studied in fields ranging from medicine to sociology to business.

The Hawthorne effect can also affect hygiene practices and dietary habits. While researchers can study the impact of the Hawthorne effect on various variables, they have to understand how this affects the internal validity of the study.

In one study, six women secretly monitored their output over a two-week period and reported the results. They were placed in a special room with a supervisor who discussed any changes to their work. This facilitated the identification of the effects of the intervention.

A separate study examined the Hawthorne effect on the use of antiseptic hand rubs in the presence of a covert observer. The rate of hand sanitizer dispensations increased when the station was visible to an auditor. However, the rate decreased when the station was not under observation.

Stress of covert research

Despite the importance of covert research, there are many ethical issues involved. For example, it can be stressful for the participants. In fact, one study showed that participants questioned the value of being a secret observer. Moreover, some people may suffer physical damage if they are discovered.

Researchers should only conduct covert research when there is no other alternative. They also need to maintain a front. Some researchers may have to commit criminal acts in order to keep their cover. This means they cannot do probing interviews. Also, they run the risk of having their project end prematurely.

According to the British Sociological Association, covert research should be conducted after the participants have been properly informed. Several professional bodies also publish ethical guidelines. Nevertheless, they occasionally encourage the use of covert methods.

Covert participant observation involves the researcher observing a group of people without them knowing it. For example, a sociologist might be invited to study a religious cult. Instead of inviting the cult members to join the research, the sociologist would have to deceive them. It is often believed that covert research results in more accurate data. But, covert methods can also be stressful for the researcher. For instance, the researcher might have to be secretive, or act like a native. Moreover, they may be unable to take field notes as they go.

November 28, 2022
Category:

Psychology

Subject area:

Covert Observations

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784

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