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When a command is issued that makes use of TCP/IP application layer, it travels in the TCP/IP protocol load within the local system. the message is then transferred goes through the network media to the remote system protocols. At each layer, the protocol on the side of the sender adds information to the original data. When a process on the sending system adds information to the packet header, the process is known as data encapsulation. Additionally, each layer provides a different name for every added information on the packet header.
2. Steps of encapsulation/ De encapsulation
The upper layers (Application, Presentation and Session) convert the message to data and forwards it to the Transport layer where it converts again the data into segments and sends it to the network layer. The segments are then converted into packets and sent to the Data Link Layer by the Network Layer. At this level, the packets are converted into frames and sent to the Physical layer. At this level, the frames are converted into binary form, (1'0) and send them across the network.
On the process of de-encapsulation, the physical device receives the packet in a frame format and calculates the CRC of the packet and moves it to the Data Link Layer. At the datalink layer, verification is done to authenticate the CRC of the packet is correct and then removes the CRC header and the CRC then send the packet to the internet layer. The internet layer reads the header information and identify the transmission and determine if the transmission is fragmented. If fragmented, the IP reassembles the fragments into the original datagram and removes the header. The datagram is then sent to the transport layer protocol. At the transport layer, it identifies which application layer protocol the data must go. The SCTP, TCP or UDP removes the header and sends the message to the recipient. Finally, the application layer receives the message and performs the required action according to the host instructions.
Media Access Control (MAC) sublayers usually contain a colon-Hexadecimal notation to identify different computers. Switch in the diagram usually specify the designated MAC, the frame which would be delivered to host A LAN1. The frame would forward endlessly because the frame does not get flooded. When it does, the destination host would drop because it would no longer be destined for the host. A change in the switch would change the MAC address and the host A LAN1 would use the MAC address for any incoming responses which includes the updated ARP.
A Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is a collection of computers networking protocols which offer a standard method of transporting multiprotocol data over point-to-point links There are three main components of a PPP. (1) a way of encapsulating multiprotocol datagrams, (2) a link control protocol which establishes, configures and test the data-link connection and (3) a group of network control protocols that establish and configure different types o network-layer protocols.
The PPP provides a single, pre-established Wide Area Network communication both to the premises of customers through a carrier network, for instance a telephone company, to a remote network. The LCP, PAP, CHAP, NCP, IPCP and other sub-protocol which communicate to PPP by sending and receiving devices sending out the subprotocols packets to determine the standards of the ensuring data transmission.
1. Modulation is usually one on the transmitter end whereas demodulation is at the receiving end. The concept of modulation demodulation is the basis of the communication system. A modulation of a digital signal is required for transmission in digital cellular telephony because the message frequency is usually too low to travel due to too much losses. Therefore, modulation is required to boost the frequency higher carrier and send it. Furthermore, modulation also has the advantage of modulation is that it has less errors (KUROSE & ROSS, 2016).
2. Digital signal transmission can be approached using two manners which are baseband transmission and broadband transmission. The baseband transmission is the sending to a channel without altering the signal from digital to analog signal. On the other hand, broadband transmission means sending a digital signal over the channel, but the signal has to first be converted into analog signal, which is the required modulation. It is in this broadband transmission that a bandpass channel can be used. A bandpass channel is one in which the bandwidth does not start from zero. It is therefore more available than a lowpass channel. (KUROSE & ROSS, 2016).
KUROSE & ROSS (2017) explains that a collision is an event in an ethernet network which used a shared media to connect devices. The shared media connects media to different network devices and every device share the same media. In the diagram presented, there are every router, switch, bridge and hub are sources of collision and therefore, there are 9 collisions.
Router = each interface is one collision domain and each interface are one broadcast domain.
Switch = each interface is one collision domain and all switch are a broadcast domain.
Bridge = Each interface is one collision domain and all bridge are a broadcast domain
Hub = a hub is one collision domain and a domain broadcast.
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KUROSE, J. F., & ROSS, K. W. (2017). Computer networking: a top-down approach.
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KUROSE, J., & ROSS, K. (2016). Computer Networking. Harlow, United Kingdom, Pearson Education Limited. http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=5187270.
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BYRNE, P. (2017). Computer networking. New York, Larsen and Keller Education.
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