Environmental Impact of Intelligent Transport Systems

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The proposed research aims at using intelligent transportation systems that are geared towards conserving the environment. We are currently facing global warming and pollution catastrophes that are directly linked to logistics operations & product consumption. Transportation modes are composed of; land, water, and air transport. All of these transport modes affect the environment. They either lead to pollution and also endangering the ecosystem by making it unfriendly to the creatures living on it. For instance, all the above channels use fuel. Most of the fuels used in the channels emit gases that are dangerous to the environment. Therefore, the proposed study will give solutions on how to use intelligent transport systems to promote environmental conservation in our surrounding.

Statement of Problem

Research Question - Would integrating Intelligent Transport Systems lead to sustainable transport operations?

Hypothesis: There is a definite relationship between integrating Intelligent Transport Systems and reduced environmental consequences of transport operations.

Aims of the project

ü Assess environmental dangers behind non-intelligent transport systems.

ü Evaluate benefits of the intelligent transport system in the long-term & short-term.

ü Evaluate the environmental impact of intelligent transport systems.

ü Weigh monetary benefits of adopting ITS vs. not doing so.

Objectives:

ü To identify the types of environmental hazards directly linked with non-ITS.

ü To identify the health hazards directly linked to logistics operations.

ü To pinpoint differences in monetary benefits through adopting ITS.

ü To clarify the benefits regarding health, sustainability, and the environment.

Proposed Methodology

Philosophy

Positivist - Positivist, is a term that refers to the study of society that relies explicitly on evidence, such as tests and figures, to reveal an actual reality of how the organization operates. Therefore, several methods are used to collect relevant data to enhance discernment of a point further. The research will be conducted in a way which will appeal to a person's common sense and logical conclusions based on facts rather than assumptions.

Approach

Deductive - Proof of the validity of the hypothesis behind this paper will be drawn from this research paper, which will necessarily prove the necessity of integrating ITS and show through solid facts showing precisely how this is so.

Strategy

Archival Research & Case Studies (secondary data) will be used to show the importance of adopting/ignoring this issue. Included will be previously conducted case studies on countries & firms, which will be broken down and assessed to help conclude the research question at hand. 

Originality - By investigating and analyzing the available information, an answer to whether or not determined efforts must be taken to implement ITS worldwide as a standard requirement will be found. By achieving this, a solution to the devastating resources and environmental catastrophes we currently are at war with could be originated. Through forcing the powers that be to adopt ITS, we could be quite literally saving the world. This paper aims to grab the unaware reader’s attention towards the manner, leave a footprint behind, & ensure that this issue is addressed according to its criticality level. Solving this issue will not only provide monetary benefits, but health & sustainability welfares will be secured.

Environmental importance of intelligence systems (ITS)

Definition

ITS is an innovative application which, in the absence of an embodying intelligence like the objective to provide advanced services which relate to different transport modes & traffic administration thus enabling users to be well informed on a safer, efficient and more coordinated traffic rules and regulations. ITS may be considered as the general modes of transport although the EU Directive of 7th July 2010, 2010/40/EU, delineates ITS as systems where communication and information tools are used in the sector of road transport, comprising of automobiles and users, infrastructure, and in mobility control and traffic management (Wang, 2010). Also, ITS is used for interfacing other different modes of transport.

                                                                                

Overview  

ITS have been radically motivated in a different part of the world due to the increasing emphasis on the homeland security (Wang, 2010). Various proposal on Intelligence transport systems involves roadways surveillance, a department that homeland security prioritizes most. The homeland security department either directly approves funds the ITS systems or certifies and support any proposal on the networks. Also, the methods are vital instruments in conducting a mass evacuation of victims in any great casualty happenings such as threat or effects of natural disaster in the urban centers (Wang, 2010). In most of developing nations, the rural-urban migrations have been progressively different resulting to non-motorized urbanization with a high rate of suburb settlements. A slight population fraction is capable of purchasing vehicles. However, the motors significantly occur jamming in those systems of multimodal transportation. Also, they produce sizable amount air pollution, impose a substantial safety threat, and aggravate spirits of inequities within the community. Densely populated regions may be sustained by these multimodal schemes of walking, bus & train transportation.

Additional fractions of the emerging nations, like India, Brazil, and China, have remained mostly rural due to their application non-intelligent transport systems although they are drastically industrializing and urbanizing (Wang, 2010). There is significant development of motorized infrastructure in conjunction with motorization of their population. Excellent wealth disparity is being experienced in a substantial fraction of the population hence only a portion of the population can get motorized.  Then, the dense multimodal system of transportation for financially unstable individuals due to the vastly free mode of transport for the economically stable individuals.

Intelligent Transport System

ITS differ in terms the technologies being applied, from simple systems of management such as control systems of the traffic signal, car navigation, vessel management structures, capricious message symbols, automatic recognition of plate numbers or speed cameras for monitoring programs such as CCTV systems (Wang, 2010).  Also, ITS is used in more innovative programs that incorporate visual information and response signals from various methods. Various sources, for example, information systems, car park guidance, weather statistics and US melting systems can also be monitored using the ITS. Additionally, analytical procedures are being advanced to permit innovative modeling and historical baseline comparison of data. Some of the developed technologies are discussed below.

                                    Figure 2: ITS deployment from systems to services

Enabling technologies

ITS integrates growing and modern communication technologies. As a result of the emerging technologies, transportation system has been able to advance their transport safety conditions and services. 

ü Wireless communications

ü Sensing technologies

ü Bluetooth detection

ü Floating car info

ü Visual vehicle detection

ü  Computational techniques

ü Inductive loop recognition

Wireless communications

Various technological systems of wireless communications have been recommended for ITS. For example, the interface of Radio modem on the VHF and UHF frequencies are broadly being used for long and short-range communication in the ITS. Those offer network connectivity to automobiles and interconnect them. It's far a key magnificence of technology that has been identified as having a full-size role in handing over future intelligence to the shipping quarter (Bielli et al.1994). Wireless networks connect the devices, transmit the information through indicators and use the medium (radio wave, microwave) for transferring and sharing the records between nodes. Notably, the fusion of fixed and mobile networks so one can assist supply sustainable and robust future transportation systems primarily based on better information collection, its processing and dissemination and the sensible use of records in completely linked surroundings. The critical innovations in wireless and virtual electronics are beginning to help many applications inside the regions of protection, environmental and emissions control, using assistance, diagnostics, and stability in the delivery area.

Cellular wireless sensor networks are self-organizing mobile networks in which nodes exchange statistics without the need for an underlying infrastructure (Bielli et al.1994. Within the automobile, the gadgets might also provide Wi-Fi connection to different facts and communique technology components inside the vehicle and hook up with sensors and various devices within the engine management the system. Advances in portable devices – smartphones, PDAs, and navigation systems can also make the most the opportunity of interconnection using in-automobile communications

Wi-Fi sensor networks provide an appealing desire for low-cost, easy to installation answers for smart transportation programs. Various varieties of Wi-Fi communications technology have been proposed for intelligent transportation systems. Radio modem verbal exchange on UHF and VHF frequencies are widely used for short and lengthy range conversation inside ITS (Bielli et al.1994). A number of the wireless technology are discussed next.

Examples of Intelligence Transport System technologies.

Research has identified four technologies that are involved in the ITS. They include sensors, computing, algorithms, and communication.

Diagrammatic illustration an ITS infrastructure

Modern vehicles have also been advanced using the ITS systems to enhance their efficiency and effectiveness in the transport sector. Below is a pictorial illustration of advancements that have occurred in vehicles.

                                   

                                   

Radio Modem communications (RMC) - RCM is used in sending information between places of distance range of 10-40 miles of modem distance. The Radio Modem frequencies are usually of Ultra High and Very High frequencies. In this kind of conversation, the information is broadcast in traffic congestion and emergencies via FM radio band, through the gadget warning drivers approximately climate changing. Typical RMC user includes telemetry application, land survey, SCADA application and fleet management.

Computational technologies

The contemporary fashion is towards fewer, more significant high-priced microchip units, the higher the memory control of the hardware and real-time functional structures (Turban, Sharda & Delen, 2010.). The brand new rooted machine structures permit for special refined software programs to be carried out, together with model-based process manipulate, synthetic aptitude, and pervasive computing. Maybe artificial intelligence is the maximum vital system of smart transportation.

Floating car data - Probe statistics is a raw data collected in different transport routes. There are four methods used in obtaining the above data.

    Triangular method-In evolved countries a disproportionate percentage of motors comprise of some single or extra cellphones. Phones occasionally convey their statistical presence to the cell phone community, even in absentia of the connection set up. Thru measuring and reading network information using triangulation, sample matching or cellular-region data (in an anonymous format), the data became converted into visitors go together with the go with the flow facts.

GPS based systems-increasingly cars are ready with in-car satnav/GPS (satellite tv for pc navigation) structures which have two-way communication with a visitor’s statistics issuer. Function interpretations from the motors are applied during the computation of car velocities. Modern-day strategies may sometimes not use devoted hardware although as a smartphone alternative based resolution entirely using so termed to as Telematics two Zero strategies (Turban, Sharda & Delen, 2010). Cell phone-primarily based device- Smartphones having numerous sensors can be used to song traffic pace and density. The accelerometer information from smartphones used by vehicle drivers is monitored to find out visitors’ speed and road quality. Audio information and GPS tagging of smartphones enhance the establishments of ability visitors jams and densities. This changed into applied in Bangalore, India as a part of a research experimental machine Nericell

Sensing technologies

Technical developments in statistics generation and telecommunications, attached with ultramodern, Radio Frequency identity, and cheaper smart beacon sensing technologies, have more significant the professional talents with the intention to expedite motorist protection aids for global intelligent transport structures (Turban, Sharda & Delen, 2010.). Detecting infrastructure and vehicle structures for ITS is predominantly founded networked systems such as smart card technology. Infrastructure indicators are often indestructible devices which are embedded or mounted in the road or surrounding the street (e.g., on houses, posts, and signs and symptoms and signs), as required, and can be manually disseminated all through preventive street construction preservation or through sensor injection gadget for rapid deployment. (Turban, Sharda & Delen, 2010). Automobile-sensing structures consist of deployment modern day infrastructure-to-automobile and car-to-infrastructure electronic beacons for identification communications and can also hire video computerized quantity plate popularity or vehicle magnetic signature detection era at desired durations to increase sustained monitoring present day automobiles working in central regions.

Inductive loop recognition - can be situated under roadbeds to provide direct contact with vehicles as they bounce over the subject’s magnetic loop (Turban, Sharda & Delen, 2010). The best sensors frequently depend on the variety of automobiles for the duration of a unit of time that skip over the loop, at the same time as more state-of-the-art indicators approximation the rate, sophistication and the lengths of cars and space between them. The loops may be situated in a single lane or throughout many paths so that they can operate with sluggish automobiles and also great moving automobiles.

Bluetooth detection- is an appropriate and less expensive manner to diploma journey time and make starting and holiday spot analysis. Bluetooth devices in passing motors are detected by sensing gadgets alongside the road. If these sensors are interconnected, they will be capable of calculating journey time and offer information for basis and vacation spot matrices (Turban, Sharda & Delen, 2010). As compared to different diverse technological site visitors measuring systems, Bluetooth dimension has a few variations:

- Accurate measurement elements with an absolute affirmation to provide to the second one journey times.

   Bluetooth is non-intrusive, that can bring about decrease-price installations for both permanent and brief sites.

   - Is restrained to how many Bluetooth devices are broadcasting in a vehicle, so counting and different applications are restricted.   - Structures are typically short to operate with little or no necessary calibration.

Due to the fact Bluetooth gadgets grow to be more magnificent time-honored on board cars and with other portable electronics broadcasting, the quantity of data amassed over time became correct and treasured for tour time and estimation functions, additional statistics can be positioned.

It is far feasible to calculated road traffic density on an avenue the use of the Audio signal that includes the cumulative sound from tire noise, engine noise, engine-idling noise, honks and air turbulence noise (Turban, Sharda & Delen, 2010.). Roadside-mounted microphone choices up to the audio that consists of the various automobile noise and Audio signal processing techniques may be used to estimate the traffic kingdom. The accuracy of the sort of gadget compares appropriately with the alternative strategies described above.

Applications Intelligent transportation systems

Emergency car warning systems

In-automobile e-Call is produced either physically using the automobile travelers or robotically via in-automobile sensors activation after a coincidence. While switched on, the in-car e-Call system will launch an emergency call transferring the vocal sound and information immediately to the nearby emergency factor (Teodorović, 2008). The voice name permits those who were in the vehicle to communicate and seek rescue from an educated e-Call operator thus faster saving of lives in situations of accidents

Automatic road implementation - enforcement camera machine consists of digicam and vehicle-tracking system, is used in identifying and discovering vehicles defying the speed restriction or a few different street criminal requirements and routinely ticket offenders based at the registration code range. Therefore, with the specified camera, the authorities get an easy time of enacting the traffic safety rules hence better environment conservation, and protection of both the drivers’ lives and the pedestrians (Teodorović, 2008). Also, the camera helps in monitoring of the vehicles' gas emissions and ensuring that the emissions are white in colors thus decreasing emission of CO2 to the environment. In cases where a vehicle is observed emitting dark black shoot into the atmosphere, then a huge fine should be imposed on the driver.

Active traffic light system

– the 2008 paper was approximately transcribed using the dynamic series of RFID traffic lights (Teodorović, 2008). It avoids troubles which commonly arise from structures which use beam interruption and photo processing techniques. RFID machinery with a suitable set of rules and catalog were implemented to a multi-lane, multi-vehicle and multi-avenue linking area to offer an effective system of time management (Teodorović, 2008). A vibrant time calendar transformed into a worked out for the channel of every column.

Below is a pictorial representation of an Intelligence Transport System.

                       

In conclusion, its evident that there is a definite relationship between integrating Intelligent Transport Systems and reduced environmental consequences of transport operations. Therefore, incorporating Intelligent Transport Systems will enhance self-sustainable transport operations since the critical innovations in wireless and virtual electronics are beginning to help many applications inside the regions of protection, environmental and emissions control, using assistance, diagnostics and stability in the delivery area. The camera supports the monitoring of the vehicles' gas emissions and ensuring that the emissions are white in colors thus decreasing emission of CO2 to the environment.

In cases where a car is observed emitting dark black shoot into the background, then a huge fine should be imposed on the driver. Cellular wireless sensor networks are self-organizing mobile networks in which nodes exchange statistics without the need for an underlying infrastructure. Also, in-automobile eCell is produced either physically using the automobile travellers or robotically via in-automobile sensors activation after a coincidence. While switched on, the in-car e-Call system will launch an emergency call transferring the vocal sound and information immediately to the nearby emergency factor. The voice name permits those who were in the vehicle to communicate and seek rescue from an educated e-Call operator thus faster saving of lives in situations of accidents

Work Cited

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Teodorović, D., 2008. Swarm intelligence systems for transportation engineering: Principles and applications. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 16(6), pp.651-667.

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September 04, 2023
Category:

Business Environment

Subcategory:

Environment Problems

Number of pages

12

Number of words

3147

Downloads:

32

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