Evaluation of Mrs. Chan

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In every accidental scene for the patient, it is necessary to conduct a primary study for an adequate assessment to ensure safety for the victim and rescuer. According to Donner-Banzhoff et al. (2017), completing the survey involves five key priorities these include danger, the response, blood circulation, the airway, and breathing. For Mrs. Chan, there must be no danger in the surroundings with the hazardous objects must be removed from the patient. Mrs. Chan should be moved to emergency areas. After evaluating that there is no danger in the surroundings, Mrs. Chan should be assessed for responsiveness to determine if she is conscious through shouting, tapping her on the shoulders. However, if there is no response, the bystanders and emergency medical services must be called to save Mrs. Chan. Consequently, it is significant to determine the blood circulation of Mrs. Chan by checking her pulse rate.

According to Khan et al. (2016), if there is no pulse rate, then it is essential to provide a rescue breath and the 30 chest compressions. More significantly there should be an airway in case the victim is not showing any signs of pulse rate. Checking the airways is done to determine if Mrs. Chan is breathing due to the blocked airway systems. Last, after deciding the airway systems, it is necessary to complete the initial survey on Mrs.  Chan through determining if she is breathing by kneeling beside her and checking her nose and mouth. Additionally, Donner-Banzhoff et al. (2017) elaborate that the rise and fall of the chest should be reviewed and if necessary one should give the rescue breaths. All these processes of completing the primary survey are critical determinants of safety and rescue of Mrs. Chan and are not substitute for the first aid education

Specific Assessment in Evaluating the Penetrating Injury

Mrs. Chan is 82 years old and suffers from hypothermia and confusion. There is no adventitious sound on based on the air entry assessment. Moreover, there is more significant laceration on Mrs. Chan right thigh with glass remains embedded in the wounded leg. Consequently, Mrs. Chan right leg has a palpable deformity that requires further assessment in evaluating the occurrence of possible structures (Donner-Banzhoff et al., 2017). However, the pelvis, abdominal, chest and the hip X-ray are underway to determine the potential effective diagnosis.

Fig 1.0 Vital Signs Registered by 06:30


 Vital Signs

The breathing rate

21-30 inhalations in every minute

0xygen (02) soaking

over 93% (Khan et al., 2016)

The oxygen (02)flow rate

>5Litres in every minute

The systolic blood pressure (BP)

120 seconds/mmHg

Heart rate

90 beats for every minute


>38.67 Celsius

The 4hours urine output

450ml (Khan et al., 2016)


Very alert

Fig 1.1 Completing the ADDS Score registered by 06:30



Respirational rate


Oxygen (02) soaking


The oxygen (02)flow rates


The systolic blood pressure (BP)


The heart rate




Four (4) Hours Urine Outputs






The Unusual Signs

There are strange signs that occur in Mrs. Chan due to too much exposure to the cold after falling. According to Khan et al. (2016), these signs include a significant confusion, low and shallow breathing rate, sudden stop in shivering as hypothermia worsens. Moreover, Mrs. Chan experiences weaker pulse rate below the standard temperature with a significant decrease in the urine output. However, Donner-Banzhoff et al. (2017) argue that based on Mrs. Chan medical history, these abnormal signs have never been experienced but can be diagnosed for effective treatment.as a result, Mrs. Chan should be accompanied by the assigned radiologist, nurse, and the doctor.

Explaining the Concepts Related To the Intravenous and Body Fluids Compartments

Solute-solute refers to the substance individually solid that dissolves in the solutions. Moreover, Hau et al. (2014) elaborate that solute can be defined as those molecules that are suspended by the solvent in the solutions. Examples include sugar, sodium chloride. Solute (Sodium chloride) is significantly associated with IV solution since it is a component of the solution

Solvent-A solvent refers to the substance or a material that sufficiently dissolves molecules of the solute into solutions. According to Hau et al. (2014), Solvent is also defined as that component in a solution whose physical states are the similar to that of the obtained solution. Examples of solvent include water (universal solvent).solvent and the prescribed solution are related through the solute (sodium chloride) to form the solution (Normal saline).moreover, Khan  et al. (2016) elaborate that  it is necessary to have solute and solvent to obtain the required solutions through a required standard room temperature or pressure.

Osmosis and How It Works In the Body Fluids and Compartments

Osmosis is the process through which molecules (water molecules) migrate from the region of lowly solute concentration to the area of highly concentration of solutes through a semi-permeable membrane. Hau et al.(2016) outline that osmosis helps in regulating the body fluids compartments such as interstitial and the intravascular compartments. According to Hau et al. (2014), the establishment of the Osmolarity and osmotic gradients serve as the primary mechanism of the movement of water molecules and body fluids.

Hau et al. (2014), outline that Mrs. Chan’s IV fluid is isotonic because it has same osmotic pressure and same solute and solvent concentration across the semi-permeable membrane. Consequently, the IV fluid is used to treat dehydration since it replaces the lost fluids and corrects the occurrences of electrolyte imbalances of the body. Moreover, Hau et al. (2014) elaborate that the solution is easily administered through the intravenous mechanisms thereby becoming the reliable way of treating dehydration.

Categorizing the terms

Active Transport

Passive Transport

Energy is necessary

No energy is needed



Sodium-potassium pump


Difference between a hydrostatic and the colloid osmotic pressure

Hydrostatic pressure

Oncotic pressure

Impetuses out of the walls of capillaries (Hau et al.,2014)

Pressure that pulls in

Increases filtration rates in the capillaries

Decreases the filtration rates

Presses and exerts blood to the walls of capillaries

Ensures proteins like the albumin do not live the capillaries (Hau et al., 2014).


Donner-Banzhoff, N., Seidel, J., Sikeler, A. M., Bösner, S., Vogelmeier, M., Westram, A., ... & Gigerenzer, G. (2017). The Phenomenology of the Diagnostic Process: A Primary Care–Based Survey. Medical Decision Making, 37(1), 27-34.

Hau, N. T., Chen, S. S., Nguyen, N. C., Huang, K. Z., Ngo, H. H., & Guo, W. (2014). Exploration of EDTA sodium salt as novel draw solution in forward osmosis process for dewatering of high nutrient sludge. Journal of Membrane Science, 455, 305-311.

Khan, Y., Ostfeld, A. E., Lochner, C. M., Pierre, A., & Arias, A. C. (2016). Monitoring of vital signs with flexible and wearable medical devices. Advanced Materials, 28(22), 4373-4395.

October 13, 2023

Health Life



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