Guardians of the Data Fortress: Ensuring Database Security

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1. Hierarchical database model. This is a database model in which organization of data adopts tree like structure. An example is the information management systems.

2. Relational model. A database that organizes information in the form of a table. Examples include Microsoft SQL, ORACLE, and MySQL.

3. Network model. A type of database in which multiple files can be linked to other multiple owner files or multiple owner files being linked to multiple files. Examples include Integrated Data Store.

4. Object-oriented database model. A database that represents data as objects. For example JADE.

5. Entity-relationship model. A database that represents data or entities as well as their relations to each other using graphical formats. For example putting hospital billing in graphical formats.

6. Document model. A database that stores, retrieves, and manages data in its semi-structure form. For example, memchache.

7. Entity-attribute-value model. A database that encodes entities which have many attributes for description. For instance, Uniform Information Management Architecture

Question 2

Data Fields

Real Data field can store data types including rational numbers, fixed point numbers, floating numbers, decimal numbers, and recurring numbers.

Integer data field can store general numbers between (-2147483648 and + 2147483647) such 5, 6, 10, 1999, and 30303.

Text data field can store data such as an individual’s first name, surname, address, city, and hometown.

Logical data field

contains data including True/Falls, On/Off, Yes/No, True-token/False-token, and ‘0’/ ‘1’.

Date data field can contain data such as short date, medium date, long date, medium time, and short and long time.

Memo data field

contains data including comments, postal codes, website addresses, sticky notes, and attachments.

BLOB data field

contains data including images, audio, short videos, multimedia objects, and voice recordings.

Question 3

Steps for Normalizing Data

In order to normalize data, one has to take into consideration some of the very basic steps. In this case, step one would be to select the source of data and proceed to convert it to an unnormalized table. The second step would be to transform the unormalized form obtained in step one and convert it to first normal form. The third step would be transforming the first normal data into a second normal form. The fourth and last step would be to transform the second normal form into the third form. However, a situation might arise such that anomalies still exist even after the third transformation, further normalization would be to transform the third normal to Boyce-Codd normal form. Boyce-Codd normal form is then transformed into the fourth normal form and finally, the fourth normal form is transformed into the fifth normal form.

Question 4

The Differences between Sorting and Indexing

Sorting and indexing are used as methods of organizing data in a table with the aim of making the table orderly (Gajic, 2017). However, there are certain notable differences. For instance, while indexing would lead to the creation of an index file that has only the logical rows as well as their respective physical positions in the table, sorting, on the other hand, creates a copy of the sorted data on the table which is then stored. As such, sorting does result in a change of the rows, whereas indexing causes no change the initial order of the table.

Question 5

SQL Query

SELECT Book.* from Book

JOIN Authorm  author1

ON AND = ‘Some Name’

JOIN Author author2

ON AND author1.author_name = ‘Some Name’


Question 6

Securing Database

Encrypting a database is essential for ensuring that vital information of a company is not accessed by any unauthorized third party who might attempt to cause a data breach. As informed by Carter (201), encryption of database is an imperative approach for protecting an organization’s data. The author explains that as the networks of companies or organizations become more open to the increasing number of the stakeholders such as partners, company’s suppliers, and the customers, network perimeter weakens and vital data of the company are not sufficiently protected. Under such conditions, the database is susceptible to any potential attack, thus, encryption usually serves as the last measure of defense.

User Privileges

User privileges are important aspects of ensuring database security. For instance, the use of access cards and passwords restricts movements and access to certain boundaries within the database setup. The only authorized staff that have been vetted by the organization and have qualified after thorough background check and have proven credibility and integrity have the opportunity to be in possession of the access codes or passwords (Carter, 2016). Since the user privileges limit access to database vicinity, it is easier to detected and narrow down to specific individuals if data is breached.


Auditing as a measure of security reinforces database protection by ensuring that every activity within the database is systematically reviewed. According to Carter (2016), the main focus of the auditors is often to monitor and record various actions of the selected database users. Such reviews have to be effectively coordinated to cover in detail every aspect of control measures, access to the data, respective individuals authorized to access the database and make prompt reports. In so doing, the organization is able to detect any anomalies if any such as altered passwords or contents of data and take the necessary actions.


Carter, P. A. (2016). Securing SQL Server: DBAs Defending the Database. Berkeley, CA: Apress.

Gajic, N. (2017). U.S. Patent No. 9,727,590. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

September 04, 2023
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