Hormones

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Hormones in Reproductive System

Hormones are needed for the detection of sperm in a woman's reproductive system immediately after sexual intercourse. They also aid in the cleaning of sperms by a mechanism known as capacitation, which involves scraping the glycoprotein layer from the sperm's surface. Hormones also release chemicals that aid in the direction of sperms to the oocyte for fertilization. Since embryo implantation often entails severe attacks on the uterine lining, progesterone hormones are in charge of thickening and reinforcing the uterine walls. This is accompanied by estrogen, which is essential for endometrium production in the uterus. The luteinizing hormone is vital for the synthesis of androgen, which in turn helps in the differentiation, proliferation as well as secretion of the follicle cells. Androgen is also essential for development of the myometrium of the uterus (pp. 130-134).

Contraceptives and Hormones

Progestin and oestrogen are progesterone analogues that are dominantly used in development of contraceptives. Through these hormones, it is possible to develop reliable steroids that help in pregnancy prevention. In order for contraceptives to function, they are combined with oestrogen that is required for promoting negative feedback on the pituitary. In turn, this helps in development of progesterone receptors as from day 1 to day 21 of the menstrual cycle. These pills are not normally taken as from day 22 to day 28 hence leading to immediate break down which leads to withdrawal bleeding. On the other hand, progestin is required to lower protein and sugar levels in the cervical fluids. This is paramount because it interferes with sperm's viability. This hormone is also essential for thickening the cervical mucus as well as suppression of the cilia in fallopian tubes. As a result, they make it harder for the sperms to penetrate hence reducing the ability impregnate the woman (pp. 135-137).

Infertility among Men

Infertility among men can be described using two major terms namely oligospermia which refers to low sperm count or aspermia which means there are no sperms at all. The two might be because of deficiency in sperm production or blockage of transport system. These might be as a result of poor diet especially lack of fatty acids, zinc and vitamins B12, C and E. increasing scrotal temperature using tightly fitting underwear, prolonged hot baths and excessive consumption of alcohol. Exposure to x-ray radiations and other chemical pollutants like phthalates also leads to male infertility (pp. 148-150). The best way to treat male infertility is to avoid all the above-mentioned triggers even though in vitro fertilization can be the option when the situation is worse (p. 151).

Spermatogenesis and Hormone Regulation

Spermatogenesis normally starts during puberty ranging from when a boy reaches the age of 12 to 15 years old. The spermatogenic cycles usually takes 16 days while the entire spermatogenesis process normally takes up to 64 days. Enhanced secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone that takes place in the hypothalamus is what triggers and regulates spermatogenesis. The hypothalamic pituitary is vital for release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone that boosts the process of spermatogenesis. This implies that the hypothalamic pituitary is responsible for the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone as well as the leuitinising hormone. Eventually, the follicle-stimulating hormone initiates development of testosterone receptors in sertoli cells hence making testosterone support spermatogenesis (pp. 121-123). Precisely, hormones are very essential in determining fertility among both men as well as women, hence the need to understand their effective control and regulation.

January 05, 2023
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Health Science

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Sex Woman Protein

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