Job Satisfaction in Organizations

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The way employees perceive their organization has emerged as a critical component of organizational behavior. Every organization is striving to ensure that its employees are satisfied with the job. It is because job satisfaction is a manifestation of the efficiency and effectiveness of an organization (Aziri, 2011). According to George et al. (2008 as cited in Aziri, 2011), job satisfaction refers “to the attitudes, beliefs, and feelings towards their current job.” The feelings can be of great satisfaction or dissatisfaction with their job. Employees who have higher job satisfaction are highly productive and loyal to the organization (Aziri, 2011).

The aim of this paper is to literature related to job satisfaction in an organization. The review will provide a conceptual framework of jobs satisfaction and its effects on the organization.

Literature review

Factors affecting job satisfaction of employees

Aziri (2011) identified working conditions/environment, job design, management, career advancement opportunities and compensation as the main factors influencing job satisfaction or dissatisfaction in an organization. One crucial aspect from Aziri (2011), is that job satisfaction should not be examined in isolation but rather with dissatisfaction in mind. Aziri (2011) uses Herzberg’s two-factor theory to explain how each factor affects job satisfaction. It means that each factor has a motivating effect on an employee that causes an increase in job satisfaction. For instance, favorable company polices lead to achievement while excellent compensation offers an opportunity for career advancement (Aziri, 2011).

 Parvin & Kabir (2011) conducted research on some factors that influence job satisfaction among employees in the pharmaceutical industry. Their findings show that 66% of employees identified a positive relationship with co-workers as the top factor for their satisfaction followed   by working conditions (62%) and job security (61%) (Pavir & Kabir, 2011). Other factors included compensation and promotion, fairness and relation with supervisor (Parvin & Kabir, 2011). Employees highly value remuneration where there are huge salary and other benefits making them ‘happy’ in the organization (Parvin & Kabir, 2011). The compensation is a huge bonus if it comes with a promotion in less than five years working in the same organization (Parvin & Kabir, 2011). Job security is also another vital aspect of job satisfaction. Employees ‘like’ companies where the security of their job is guaranteed and less likely to be fired at a moment’s notice (Parvin & Kabir, 2011).

It is apparent that working conditions play a significant role in job satisfaction in the workplace (Aziri, 2011; Parvin & Kabir, 2011). Therefore, Raziq & Maulabakhsh (2015) examined how the working environment impacted job satisfaction. The study found a strong correlation between the working environment and job security, safety and work hours in organizations (Raziq & Maulabakhsh, 2015).  Aspects of working environment that enhance job satisfaction include hygiene, teamwork, communication, training opportunities within the organization and supervisor relationships that improve productivity (Raziq & Maulabakhsh, 2015).

 Effect of job satisfaction on employee performance

Contentment by workers influences both their individual achievement and organizational performance. Fadlallh (2015), conducted research regarding the effect of positive or negative feelings in the workplace on employee achievement. The result shows that the feelings of content or lack of thereof and employee performance are directly linked (Fadlallh, 2015). Job satisfaction influences employee satisfaction through motivation (Fadlallh, 2015). It means that managers who want to improve the performance of their employees have to increase their job satisfaction by appropriate motivating strategies. Highly motivated employees experience a higher level of job satisfaction that translates into better performance in the workplace (Fadlallh, 2015). It means that organizations must assign jobs to employees according to their level of skill, competency, and experience. Difficult tasks without the necessary professional education and training opportunities in the organization can demoralize employees, which will negatively affect their performance.

Shmailan (2016) also explores the correlation between satisfaction and task performance of personnel in an organization. Meanwhile, one way of ensuring that  increased job satisfaction leads to increased productivity is by improving employee engagement (Shmailan, 2016). Employee engagement involves preparing workers by leveraging their knowledge and skills to achieve organizational outcomes (Shmailan, 2016). The purpose of employee engagement is to increase productivity by creating a better working environment, improve job attendance and increase retention of talented employees in the organization (Shmialan, 2016). An employee can be engaged to realize job satisfaction by being allocated challenging work, autonomy, professional development and training, reward schemes, and teamwork (Shmailan, 2016).

Organizations that have more satisfied employees are more effective than those with low levels of satisfaction (Bakotic, 2016).  Furthermore, studies have shown that job satisfaction leads to an overall improvement in organizational performance (Bakotic, 2016). Moreover, there is also evidence to suggest that organizations that perform better also make their employees be more satisfied (Bakotic, 2016). Research has a shown a direct correlation between feelings of extreme contentment and organizational performance (Bakotic, 2016). It is because employees who were highly satisfied were found to work harder and more innovative in executing their duties and responsibilities (Bakotic, 2016)

Evaluation of Job satisfaction

Measurement of job satisfaction is a complex process with many variables to consider. Evaluation of job satisfaction will determine the level of satisfaction in the organization and identify ways to increase those levels (Aziri, 2011). According to Aziri (2011), job satisfaction can be measured using the Minnesota Questionnaire and Job Description Index on the levels of satisfaction in a firm. The Questionnaire allows participants to respond to questions as not satisfied, very satisfied, not satisfied nor dissatisfied, extremely satisfied and extremely dissatisfied (Aziri, 2011). Another method of assessment is to create dimensions of job performance and use indicators to determine the level of satisfaction (Ozpehvilan & Acar, 2015). The dimensions include pay, promotion, working conditions, relationship with co-workers, management skills and job security (Ozpehvilan & Acar, 2015). However, Ozpehvilan & Acar (2015), failed to identify the measuring instruments and key job satisfaction indicators. Goetz et al.(2011), carried out studies related to the  evaluation of the level of contentment  between General Physicians and non-physician staff in hospitals. The results showed that although GP worked for longer hours, their level of satisfaction was determined by an opportunity to showcase their medical abilities (Goetz et al., 2011). On other hand, non-physicians worked for fewer hours than GP but were more satisfied if they are recognized for their work (Goetz et al., 2011).

Ways of increasing job satisfaction of employees

Identification of factors can help organizations come up with strategies to improve job satisfaction in the workplace. Kumari (2011) explores various ways which companies can use to increase job satisfaction for their employees. One way is by establishing and promoting an organizational culture that values the employees of the company (Kumari, 2011). This type of organization culture sends a message to employees that their opinions can be put under consideration to improve their welfare in the organization(Merhad et al., 2017).Another is through appropriate communication between employees, their co-workers and supervisors to build trust and avoid frustrations that might cause low levels of satisfaction (Kumari, 2011; Merhad et al., 2017).  The management can also improve the working conditions of employees (Kumari, 2011). It involves ensuring that the physical environment is conducive for the health and safety of employees, reducing the number of working hours, improving work-life balance and investigating cases of harassment and bullying in the workplace (Kumari, 2011). Rewards and recognition can also be used to raise satisfaction levels in the company (Kumari, 2011; Merhad et al., 2017). Publicly acknowledging an employee for the commendable job is a morale booster. However, when rewarding and recognizing employees, fairness should be considered; because unfair rewards cause low levels of satisfaction. Providing career development and training also motivates employees to be more productive and reinforces their organizational commitment in their work (Kumari, 2011). Leadership also goes a long way in promoting higher levels of happiness in the organization (Kumari, 2011). Leadership is able to achieve such by coming up with an appropriate compensation plan that fairly rewards employees according to performance.


Satisfaction in the workplace is one aspect that impacts staff performance in an organization. More satisfied employees are more productive than those with low levels of satisfaction. Compensation, workplace relationships, management policies, environmental conditions in the workpiece, promotion and security from undue dismissal impact happiness levels in the company. Job Description Index and Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire to measure feelings and attitudes of workers towards the organization.. Organizations can improve their satisfaction levels through able leadership, corporate culture, use of rewards and recognitions, compensation and communication.


Aziri, B. (2011). Job satisfaction: A literature review. Management Research & Practice, 3(4): 77-86.

Danica Bakotić (2016) Relationship between job satisfaction and organizational performance, Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 29:1, 118-130, DOI: 10.1080/1331677X.2016.1163946]

Fadlallh, A.W.(2015). Impact of Job Satisfaction on Employees Performance an Application on Faculty of Science and Humanity Studies University of Salman Bin Abdul-Aziz-Al Aflaj. International Journal of Innovation and Research in Educational Sciences Volume 2, Issue 1,25-32.

Goetz, K., Campbell, S. M., Steinhaeuser, J., Broge, B., Willms, S., & Szecsenyi, J. (2011). Evaluation of job satisfaction of practice staff and general practitioners: an exploratory study. BMC Family Practice, 12, 137.

Kumari, N.(2011). Job Satisfaction of the Employees at the Workplace. European Journal of Business and Management, Vol 3, No.4, pp. 11-34

Mehrad A., Zangeneh M. H. T. (2017) Different levels of job satisfaction by educational organization motivators. Open Science Journal 2(2).

Ozpehvilan, M., & Acar, A,Z,(2015). Assessment of a Multidimensional Job Satisfaction Instrument. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 210: 283 – 290. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.11.368

Parvin, M.M., & Kabir, N.M.(2011). Factors affecting employee job satisfaction in the pharmaceutical sector. Australian Journal of Business and Management Research Vol.1 No.9 [113-123]

Raziq, A., & Maulabakhsh, R.(2015). Impact of Working Environment on Job Satisfaction. Procedia Economics and Finance 23 : 717 – 725. doi: 10.1016/S2212-5671(15)00524-9

Shmailan, A.S.(2011). The relationship between job satisfaction, job performance, and employee engagement: An explorative study. Issues in Business Management and Economics Vol.4 (1), pp. 1-8, Available online at

January 19, 2024
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