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With the ocean covering more than 71% of the world's surface, it is believed that the largest proportion of Earth's life lives in the ocean. However, the exact proportion of the Ocean life compared to dry land live is still unknown due to the fact that many oceans species are still undiscovered. The branch of marine science that deals with the scientific study of marine lives and all organisms that live in the sea is called marine biology (Garrison and Tom 43). This study covers both animals and plants whose live or grows on the seas as well as terrestrial and airborne organisms which depend either directly or indirectly upon saltwater bodies for either food or other necessities. It is complicated to deal with marine life and fully understand them. As a result, this study's specialized branches concern natural history, physiology, embryology, ecology, taxonomy, geographical distribution, and morphology (Levinton, Jeffrey, and Jeffrey 96). Additionally, marine biology has a close relationship to oceanography science since there is an interrelationship between the organisms living in the ocean and the physical features of the ocean. Furthermore, this study is even related to marine geology for it deals with the study of organisms that contribute their skeletal remains to the floor of the ocean as well as elaborating the tropic oceans vast coral reefs. Due to the complex nature of marine biology, it is divided into several areas of specialization with each serving to achieve a specific aim.
Primarily, the main aim of marine biology is discovering how specific natural occurring phenomena contribute to the distribution of organisms, their behavior, as well as how they interact with the environment. As a result, the marine biologist study forms in which given organisms adapt to the different chemical and physical properties of seawater, to the ocean currents, to movement within the ocean, to light availability in different depths within the ocean, as well as to the seafloor solid surface (Levinton, Jeffrey, and Jeffrey 45). Among all the areas of specialization, the most critical concern is on the determination of dynamics of marine ecosystems, marine food chains, and marine predator-prey relationships. The information gathered in marine science is crucial in the understanding distribution of dish and the crustacean population especially for fisheries. In addition to all these, marine biology also is concerned with the effects of certain water pollutions on both ocean fish life and plant. Mainly, this study is concerned with the effect of fertilizers and pesticides that runoff from the land source during rainy seasons, those that accidentally spills from oil tankers, as well as silting due to the coastline construction activity.
With the advancement of technology, marine biology has also experienced changes over time. There has been a breakthrough in the methods of obtaining samples and investigation in this field of study. The underwater televisions and cameras have made it possible to observe marine organisms directly in their areas of habitat. Another improvement in this area has been improved diving equipment that are bubbles thus do not scare away marine life, and submarines with the ability to decent to greater depths (Benson 315). The development of the underwater television made it possible to receive continuous pictures of fields of submerged camera occurring events without necessarily being there. On the other hand, the self-contained diving equipment for divers makes investigators to directly decent to the natural habitat of marine organisms and conductor an inspection directly.
Due to the adverse nature of the marine science field or study, most researchers select a given area that interests them and specialize in that particular area. Such specialization is primarily based on a certain marine species, behavior, ecosystem, organism, or technique. For instance, a person pursuing to become marine biologist may decide to choose to study a single species of clans, or even decide to explore all clans native to a particular region or climate ("Marine biologist").
Among the area of specialization is the marine biotechnology. This area of study offers a significant opportunity to marine biologists. Their primary aim is to develop a wide range of applications and possibilities within the marine life. Within marine biotechnology, we also have the biomedical field which majorly develops land test drugs that originate from either marine organisms or products of marine organisms ("Marine biologist").
Another area of specialization in marine biology is molecular biology. In this field, the researcher uses their knowledge in the application of molecular techniques and approaches to several environments ranging from coastal ponds to the deep of the seas. This is done for many different organisms comprising microscopic bacteria, animals, marine mammals, and plants. Molecular biology can be used for instance in the identification of specific water organism sample by molecular probes utilization. Such a technique is highly useful especially in a case where the organism in question is similar to another or is microscopic.
Environmental biology and toxicology are among the other popular areas found within the marine biology field of study where people can specialize. The two regions have both implication and application directly in the society. Water quality research, for example, is among the specialties in environmental biology and toxicity as well as the study of pollutants or contaminants in marine or coastal environment ("Marine Biology"). Through cleanup measures, laws, and regulation meant for protection of the environment, and it is assured that marine and environmental biologists as well as consultants progressing play a crucial role within our communities.
Marine biology also has a field of study that deals majorly on organisms that have been existing for over billions of years know as the protists. These are organisms which are single-celled like the microalgae and protozoa that live in marine environments (Benson 317). Such organisms, although they are microscopic, plays a crucial role within the marine ecosystem for they serve as food for other animals within the aquatic food web thus, are the primary producers in the food web. Due to their special position within the marine food web, such organisms are very crucial because in case a factor affects their population or distribution, the entire aquatic food web would collapse. These among the many mentioned reasons make marine biology an area of interest for many.
In conclusion, special care and attention should be dedicated to the way humans interact with marine life. People should also learn to acquire knowledge in this area to protect this vast resource which provides food for humans and other organisms, medicines and raw materials as well. Additionally, marine live support tourism and recreation all over the world determine the nature or our planet. Studying marine science and especially marine biology is therefore of great benefit to our planet at large.
Garrison, Tom S. Oceanography: an invitation to marine science. Cengage Learning, 2015.
"Marine Biology." Marine Careers, 2018, https://www.marinecareers.net/marine-biology. Accessed 7 July 2018. ("Marine Biology")
"Marine biologist." Environmentalscience.Org, 2018, https://www.environmentalscience.org/career/marine-biologist. Accessed 7 July 2018.
Levinton, Jeffrey S., and Jeffrey S. Levinton. Marine biology: function, biodiversity, ecology. Vol. 420. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Benson, Keith R. "Marine biology, intertidal ecology, and a new place for biology." History and philosophy of the life sciences 36.3 (2015): 312-320.
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