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For production, lighting, transportation, cooking, and entertainment, we all consume energy. Individuals use too much energy. For instance, the USA consumes one-fourth of the energy produced globally (Koksvik, 2007). The renewable and nonrenewable energy sources are the two main categories. The consumption of the non-renewable energy sources, such as oil, coal, and natural gas, should be limited to prevent their exhaustion because they cannot be replenished. On the other side, renewable energies are those that can continuously replenish, like solar, wind, and water. Saving energy is critical in reducing the level of pollution. Most of the energy used especially the non-renewable energy accounts for a greater percentage of air pollution on the planet. Conserving energy is crucial for the planet. Some of the sources of energy such as natural gas, oil, and coal which are most utilized take millions of years to form. If the trend continues this way, the future generation might never have these non-renewable sources of energy (Koksvik, 2007).
People all over the world the world have realized the importance of saving energy and are doing it in some ways. Some of the ways include turning off the lights when they are not being used, using public transport instead of personal cars to reduce the amount of fuel used, installation of the programmable thermostat that regulated cooling and heating when you are at home and selecting the most energy efficient commodities when making purchases, it is important to get an assurance that a particular product conserves energy and also prevents pollution before going ahead to purchase (Koksvik, 2007).
Despite the fact that people try to conserve energy they have not been efficient in regulating the rising human population that puts pressure on these natural resources. The human population is rising at an alarming rate a fact that increases the amount of energy consumption.
The Law of Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics is one of the present science that manifests itself in our daily lives. Thermodynamics is present in our daily business activities, and it became has common sense. Almost all things that surround us (electronic devices, coffee makers, refrigerators, and cars) are all usual application of the law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamically is all about the utilization of energy: how it changes from one form to the other and how it gets used. The overall concept of thermodynamics means using heat to provide work for instance in the automobile industry. Thermodynamics is not solely the study of work and heat alone. It is the study of the behaviors and dynamics of energy as well as its manifestations (Reid, 2008). Because of energy things keep on going. All the varieties of the vehicle that are available, aero planes, ships, trucks, motorcycles and cars and much more work the basis of the law of thermodynamics. They might use a different type of fuel, for instance, diesel and petrol but the law remains the same. Even the cooling systems available in our homes use the heat energy by the simply usual process by which particles are heated. The refrigerator is capable of pulling heat from the inner compartment where the perishables are stored and transferring it to the outer region for this reason the back of the refrigerator remains warm. The industrial refrigerators, deep freezer, and all refrigerators work based on the law of thermodynamics. The concept of heat transfer can be adopted in a wide variety of devices like heaters, coolers, radiators, condensers, evaporators and the heat exchangers.
The Study of Waves
Waves are everything in life because most of the information we receive comes from waves. We talk to others and see things because of waves, we cook with the help of waves, and we rely on waves to bring music. Animals also rely on waves; they rely on motion to propel themselves as they explore the surrounding. The snake and eels use the transverse body waves to push themselves against the ground or water. The earthworm utilizes the longitudinal waves. The tidal and Tsunamis waves are also present in the seas and oceans; these waves can move at an incredible speed and cause a lot of damage on the coastal lines. The shock waves created by a lighting can lead to sonic boom (Bedarev, Parmon, Fedorov, Fedorova & Fomin, 2004). The sonic boom can be provided by those aircraft that travel faster than the speed of sound in air.
The study of waves is essential in the human life because it helps them understand particular phenomenon for instance how Tsunamis happen thereby reducing the number of causalities in case such an occurrence occurs. Waves also play a crucial role in the design of various musical instruments the stringed instruments use the law of strings while the wind instruments majorly rely on the resonance. Because of sound waves, people are capable of estimating distance a fact that enables them to discover another phenomenon.
The Doppler’s effect is the change in wave length or frequency of the wave for an observer who is on the move relative the source of the wave. Some of the typical examples of a Doppler effect is the change of pitch heard when a vehicle surrounding a horn or a siren recede, passes of approaches a given observer. One of the typical examples of Doppler’s effect is the change in pitch of and a police car or an ambulance as it speeds past. The medical sector has applied the Doppler’s concept. The astronauts rely on the Doppler’s theory because they depend on the emitted sound to calculate the velocity or distance of an object. It also enables these astronauts to work out the speed of the light emitting objects that exist in space such as galaxies and stars ("Doppler of the Doppler ultrasound effect," 2003). The understanding of the Doppler’s effect has enabled people to learn about the universe; this allows us to estimate the world around us.
The medical sector uses the Doppler Effect to monitor the flow of blood through the vessels. The Doppler’s ultra sounds able to measure the speed and the flow of blood by the use of high-frequency sound waves and therefore provide valuable information on the development of fetuses, the cardiac functioning in the adults and blocked arteries. The Doppler’s effect is also applied to the weather observation to characterize weather movements and patterns and has other applications in radiology and aviation. It is also used in the police speed detectors thereby helping reduce the number of accidents.
Bedarev, I., Parmon, V., Fedorov, A., Fedorova, N., & Fomin, V. (2004). Numerical Study of Methane Pyrolysis in Shock Waves. Combustion, Explosion, And Shock Waves, 40(5), 580-590. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/b:cesw.0000041411.91918.9b
Doppler of the Doppler ultrasound effect. (2003). Gastroenterology, 125(6), 1590. http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2003.10.024
Koksvik, O. (2007). Conservation of Energy is Relevant to Physicalism. Dialectica, 61(4), 573-582. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-8361.2007.01124.x
Reid, T. (2008). Thermodynamics: Upholding the law. Nature China. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nchina.2008.286
What causes the color changes in leaves during Autumn? Describe the role of chloroplasts and chlorophylls in this process.
Autumn is the season following summer and preceding winter. This season is characterized by changes in pigmentation of leaves in many plants and shedding of leaves. These changes in color are brought about by chemical processes in the leaves due to the change in weather conditions. The preceding seasons of summer and spring are when the foods needed by trees are manufactured, with the leaves being the factories. Food making process happens in plant cells containing chlorophyll which gives the leaves the green pigmentation. Other colors are also present in leaves but are masked off by the chlorophyll’s green color. These colors include yellow and orange pigments.
On the onset of autumn, various changes in weather conditions halt the food manufacturing process in leaves. These conditions are changes in temperature and length of daylight. When the food making process stops, chlorophyll is broken down, and the green color disappears. This process leave the other pigments behind which explain the color changes in autumn. Different plants show different colors which result from the mixing of the various amounts of the remains of chlorophyll and other pigments present in the leaves (Biggs, 2012).
Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells, whose primary function is to conduct the photosynthesis process. This process enables the leaves to obtain the necessary energy required in the food making process. Chlorophyll refers to the green pigments that are found in leaves. These pigments are essential for absorption of sunlight which is then converted to energy used for food manufacturing in plants. The photosynthesis process is interrupted during autumn due to changes in weather conditions. This causes the changes in pigmentation when chlorophyll breaks down (Lodish, 2016).
Discuss in detail the specific role of autotrophs and heterotrophs.
Autotrophs are organisms that can produce their own foods by use of substances in their surroundings. These organisms are usually producers in the food chain which include plants. They are able to convert sunlight into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis. This energy is utilized in a chemical process which converts various elements to food. They are also able to break down carbon dioxide from the surroundings to form organic compounds such as glucose where they store chemical energy (Miller & Levine, 2010).
Heterotrophs are organisms that consume organic carbon compounds for them to be able to produce the energy required to sustain their life. They are usually consumers in the food chain. They are mostly composed of animals and fungi. They depend on ingesting autotrophs or other heterotrophs to obtain organic carbon compounds. They then break down complex organic compounds in a process known as oxidation to release energy.
Autotrophs play a prominent role in absorbing the excess carbon dioxide present in the environment. The excessive level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere leads to a greenhouse effect, which contributes to global warming (Biggs, 2012). When autotrophs absorb this excess carbon dioxide, they help in cleaning the atmosphere thus reducing the green house effect. Another important role played by autotrophs is the primary production of food consumed by other members in the food chain which supports life.
When waste products from heterotrophs are released to the environment and get decomposed, they are reabsorbed by autotrophs and used as nutrients. Decomposed waste is converted into carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen among others. These elements are then used by autotrophs to make their own food. The relationship between heterotrophs and autotrophs helps in the transmission of energy in an ecosystem.
Give a detailed discussion of the process of photosynthesis.
Photosynthesis is the process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy which then facilitates other activities in a plant. This energy breaks down carbon dioxide and utilizes other compounds such as water to make chemical energy. Chemical energy is stored in plants in the form of carbohydrates and fats.
Chlorophyll in the plants absorbs the light energy from the sun. Chlorophyll molecules are usually embedded in chloroplasts. The green pigmentation enables absorption of sunlight. Sunlight absorbed by the chlorophyll provides the necessary energy used in the chemical process of converting water and carbon dioxide into sugar and oxygen (Miller & Levine, 2010).
Plants absorb carbon dioxide through their leaves using small pores referred to as stomata. Water is also absorbed through the roots of the plants, and it moves from the roots to the leaves through vessels in the stem. In the chemical reaction, light energy is used to remove electrons from water. This leads to the separation of oxygen from water, and such oxygen is released into nature. The hydrogen left behind then combines with carbon dioxide to form other compounds such as sugars. The ensuing process is illustrated by the chemical formula below.
Carbon dioxide + Water LIGHT Sugar + Oxygen
6CO2 + 6H2O LIGHT 6C6H12O6 + 6O2
This chemical reaction whereby carbon dioxide is converted into sugar is referred to as carbon fixation. During the photosynthesis process, oxygen is released as a by-product. The process utilizes the carbon dioxide from the environment and releases oxygen. Some of the sugar produced by the plants is used by the plant itself for its growth and development. The rest of it is stored in fruits, stem, leaves or even roots. Heterotrophs then ingest such food as their source of energy (Vivion, 2011).
Photosynthesis process also plays a critical role in cleaning the air. The plants and algae that perform the process are called photoautotrophs. Some organisms like bacteria undergo photosynthesis but do not produce oxygen as a waste product. Such process is referred to as anoxygenic photosynthesis.
Discuss the roles that mutualism relationships with fungus and bacteria play in root function. Describe the nutritional deficiencies/problems present in both a plant system and the fungus or bacteria and why the mutualistic nature of the relationship fulfills the gap created by the deficiency.
The mutual relationship between the fungus and bacteria in plant roots is called symbiosis. Both the fungus and the bacteria benefit from the relationship. In this case, the plant is referred to as the host. The fungi tend to colonize the plant root system and benefits by absorbing carbohydrates produced through photosynthesis. In return, the fungi enhance the plant’s water and nutrients absorption capability (Lodish, 2016).
Most of the plants in nature usually have such symbiotic relationships with bacteria and fungi. Fungi and bacteria are usually heterotrophic organisms and depend on plants to absorb their food. Plants, on the other hand, are autotrophic which means they produce their own food through photosynthesis. However, some plants have difficulty in absorbing some essential nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen. Fungi can easily absorb these two elements needed by the plants (Vivion, 2011).
Several plants require fungi to colonize their roots to enhance the plant's ability to absorb nutrients. Through the long extensions of fungi called hyphae, the surface area of the plant used for water and nutrient absorption is increased.
This symbiotic relationship is necessitated by deficiencies inherent to plant and fungi. Plants experience depletion of nutrients from the soil surrounding the roots leading to low concentration. Plants rely on fungi extensions which form on their root structure to reach the nutrient that may be initially hard to reach.
Fungi and bacteria are heterotrophic and thus do not synthesize their own food needed for growth and development. Through attaching with the plant roots, they are able to absorb the much-needed carbohydrates which are their source of energy. This means that these different organisms have to coexist for their survival.
Biggs, A. (2012). Biology. Columbus, Ohio: McGraw-Hill Education.
Lodish, H. (2016). Molecular cell biology. New York, NY: Freeman.
Miller, K., & Levine, J. (2010). Biology. Boston, MA: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Vivion, N. (2011). Biology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
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