Protein Hormones and Steroid Hormones

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Hormones of the human body can be grouped into two main classes by their chemical structure. The two major categories include protein hormones and steroid hormones. Consequently, the chemical groups affect how the hormones are distributed, the receptors they bind to and to some aspects, the functions they perform in the body.

 Peptide-based hormones are further divided into amines, peptides, and proteins. The variances are critical of the extent and what they are made up. Peptide compounds are made up of several amino acids; amines are made up of the tyrosine, amino acid, and proteins consist 50 or more amino acids. Also, their chemistry is another essential difference between them in that their polarity (excluding thyroid hormones) make them easy to transport compounds within the bloodstream. These hormones, therefore, diffuse across the plasma of the blood and circulate into the target tissues. However, this affects their half-life. Unbound hormones, thus, are broken down and cleared rapidly. Their polarity also makes it intolerable for them to pass across the cell membrane and interrelate in the cell. The hormones hence attach on the surface receptor of the cell membranes and stimulate secondary messenger systems.

The steroid hormones consist of cholesterol lipids. As such, they are altered cholesterol backbones. Since the steroids lack charges, they are non-polar. Moreover, the lack of charges prevents fats from reacting with water and are relayed differently. They are also bound on the carrier proteins within the plasma primarily, albumin. On reaching the target tissues, they detach from the carriers and move across the cell membrane and interrelate in the cell. Steroid hormones attach to the nuclear receptors on the nuclear surface and facilitate protein synthesis. Additionally, they have an extended half-life and clear out gradually as compared to protein hormones (Mullally).



Works Cited

Mullally, Aaron. "SOPHIA." n.d. Chemical Classes of Hormones. 17 12 2018. .

October 05, 2023


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