Research about emotional intelligence

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Workplace effectiveness is linked to emotional intelligence. People who are emotionally sophisticated tend to speak up more frequently and more effectively. When people are treated unfairly, they always feel the justified indignation to express their outrage, but they are also able to contain their rage and reason with their colleagues. This means that those people who are emotionally intelligent are capable of analyzing situation in the right way. They are able to recall certain events which eventually help them compare with the current situations and come with solutions. This is the same reason as to why those people who are said to be emotionally intelligent are categorized as some of the most successful people. The reason as to why these individuals are not self-focused, and that’s why they are capable of perceiving things more accurately. This means that the variance in emotional intelligence between individuals affect the way they see things or their perceptions.

The research question being analyzed: Does emotional intelligence affect false memory?

Hypothesis: Those participants having emotional intelligence score will do well on recalling the correct words on the list from DRM false memory task

Literature review

False memories refer to the mental experiences which are mistakenly considered to be a veridical representation of events from those past events of an individual. Memories happen to be recognized as false in relatively to minor and also major ways which often has profound implication for individuals and those surrounding them. False memories arise from a very similar process like the true memories, and thus their studies tend to reveal their basic mechanism of memory.

Practical motivations mainly have abounded as a result of high risks situations where those results of deceptive memories happen to be more serious. Emotion is classifiable into two wide ways whereas some of the actions happen to be emotional themselves or else it can be part of the people’s mood when some things are being experienced, and this is seen as a milieu of familiarity. An example is those witness to the crimes which are violent those who subsequently attempt to recall those particular events while the police interviews are going on. On the other hand, most of the events like seeing someone being threatened with the use of a weapon or seeing the destruction of certain property happens to be connected with the poignant content where they are depressing and also arousing based on the circumplex theory of emotions.

People happen to remember hearing words which were never offered to them. Research done by Roediger and McDermott (1995) did present a word list to the university students and requested them to recall the word they heard. The list introduced comprised of 12 words and they were all linked with certain target word that had not been presented. After the students had listened to each of the six lists that had been issued, they were requested to write them down the words that they could recall. The critical lure in that study happened to be recalled 40% of the time despite the fact that it was not presented. During the recognition check, the students happened to recognize the lures as old items 84 percent of the time.

A study was done by Guerry, Marsh, and Tracy (2002) happened to discover that there existed no gender difference when it comes to false recall when the DRM paradigm was put into use. The inability to discover the gender difference can mean that the DRM paradigm is relying on the episodic memory of the word and despite the existence of proof that women may do better than men on the test of verbal memory, the gender difference happens to be small in verbal ability.

False memory

To come with progress on the way emotion influences false memory and to generate the theoretical hypothesis, it is important to elaborate on what false memory is, operationally speaking and also and to put consideration on the processes thought to be responsible for it. If it happens that emotional content or the context has influence false memory, the basic memory process that happens to control such errors is in most cases affected.

Emotional intelligence

Defining emotional intelligence

Ever since 1980, new intelligence theories have been introduced and have been found to replace the traditional theory. There have been many intelligence theories some introduced by Howard Gardner (1983), there is that of Mayer and Salovey (1990) and Goleman (1995). IQ alone cannot be said to be the measure of success for it just accounts for 20%, and the rest lies in the emotional and social intelligence and also lack.

Emotional intelligence is seen when one can monitor their own and also other people’s feelings and also emotions, to discriminate among them and also to guide their actions and thinking. Those emotionally intelligent people will have skills in four specific areas which are using, identifying, understanding and also regulating emotions. Research carried out by Goleman (1995) did depict that emotional intelligence has five components which are inclusive of understanding a person’s emotions, managing them, having motivation, respecting other people’s emotions as well as handling the relationships.

Goleman (1998) happened to identify five basic emotional and social competencies that happen to matter a lot in work life: these include self-awareness, regulation, motivation,empathy as well as social skills. Emotional intelligence happens to be a soft skill that can help individuals to navigate the social contexts. To understand the emotions, it is important to first examine the emotions. Emotions are those internal responses which coordinate the psychological subsystems.

Emotional intelligence is comprised of personal competencies, the way a person controls emotions and also social competence, and lastly the way one deals with the emotions of other people. Emotional intelligence is concerned with nonverbal and verbal expressions and appraisal of emotions, the regulation, and utilization of emotion when solving problems. Emotional intelligence is the intersection between the emotional and the cognitive systems, and it is best characterized as a sophisticated example of the emotional intelligence.

Instead of those emotionally reacting which are unchecked, people having emotional intelligence happen to engage in thoughtful processing which is before displaying a response. Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso (2004) came with a suggestion of a four-branch model that separate the emotional intelligence with the abilities to be able to: Perceive emotion, to comprehend emotions, manage emotions and use emotions to be able to facilitate the internal thoughts.

That individual who has emotional intelligence portrays the ability to reason and identify with the emotional information and to make use of that knowledge so that they can solve life problems. The Bar-On Model (2010) defined the emotional, social intelligence as an array of those social and emotional competencies which were interrelated, the way people understand and express their emotions, the way they understand and also relate to the emotions of other people.

False memory and emotional intelligence

On regard to research carried out by Bookbinder, & Brainerd, (2016), false memories are influenced by various factors, but it happens that emotion is a variable with a significance which is special for both the practical and theoretical reasons. It is interesting to say that the effects of emotion on sham memory highly depend on how it is entrenched in that substance which is to be recalled or people's mood, and in this case, mood happens to be an aspect of that context where the events will be encoded; those theoretical bases on this particular context-context dissociation and then the accumulated evidence via the review that context and content effects happen to be different.


The core objective of this research is to establish how emotional intelligence has false effect memory of the undergraduate students in universities. The study will involve making use of a self-assessment of the undergraduate population in various universities in the region.


The study will incorporate fifty students from the selected university. The population will be selected through a purposeful sampling of the students in the selected universities whereby all interviewees must be continuing or returning undergraduate. This study will exclude subject who have psychiatric disorders, brain injuries or those with language difficulties. Participation will be completely voluntary, and the subjects have the right to withdraw from the study at any time. A total of 50 subjects is anticipated to participate in all the sections of the survey.

Procedure and materials

Approval from the ethical committee of the department of psychology at the University will be requested. Once granted, the participants of the study will be personally tested within a laboratory room that is quiet. On arrival, the members involved will be requested to sign an informed consent form and the, manipulation, instructions as well as the stimulus material will be offered on the paper.

Deesel Roediger-Mc Demermott paradigm

The participants will be subject to the description of the DRM paradigm by the Dutch wherein the current study it will consist of 10 selected word lists which happen to be drawn from the Dutch normative study. Each list will consist of 15 words semantically which will be linked to a non-presented serious lure word. The words will be audibly read one after the other. The terms which will be spoken in a feminine voice will be offered for 1 s having an interstimulus gap consisting of 1 s. The participants will not get any warning manipulation unlike what Watson (2005) indicated. After the presentation of every list, the participants will be given 2 minutes which they will use to list down all those terms that they will remember.

After completion, a ten lists a digit span task will follow. Those who will participate will be offered an old-new acknowledgment task which will comprise of ten vital entice of the list to be examined which will be totally intermixed with 30 study words as well as other 20 lures which will be not related to those from those lists which are non-presented. Only those words which are unrelated to the terms in the list to be examined will serve as distinct lures. For every 60 terms, the participant will have to indicate whether the words are old or they are new.

An emotional intelligence test will be introduced and it will enhance the identification, evaluation, controlling and the expression of one emotion and the way they assess and perceive other people’s emotions to facilitate thinking, understanding the emotional meanings. The participants will be expected to carefully indicate the options they feel comfortable with. They will be expected to choose the responses reflecting their typical feelings, thoughts and the behaviors. The emotional intelligence quiz will describe the situations that people experience in their lives. The participants are required to be as honest as possible when they will be answering the questions, and these are the ones to give an accurate assessment of the participants level of emotional intelligence. Once the quiz has been taken, snapshot reports will be received immediately with an introduction, a graph and also a personalized interpretation of the participant test scores.

Data analysis

Data analysis will be carried out through an alpha set at .05 (two-tailed). These six DRM indices will be formulated: false recall from the lure words which are critical, mean accurate from the recall proportions which are free, false recall from the lures unrelated, mean proportions from those old words which were correctly recognized, recognition of lure words which are critical and the recognition from the lures which are unrelated. This research is mainly focused on false memories, so the issue to be focused on is the free recall and the acknowledgment of the lure terms which are critical. The formulated statistic will be used to establish the association between arousing intelligence and false memory and establish their connections with the existing literature that is on this topic.

An emotional intelligence test is mainly to help the researcher gain a better understanding on their social and emotional functioning. After the participants are done with the EQ test, there will be a resource report that will be produced. This will allow the researcher to explore the skills of the participants across various areas. This form of a resource report contains various sections. It will bring with graphical displays of the results of the total EQ, composite scales that will be 5 and subscales totaling to 15. The composite scale will break the total EQ into 5 domains which are inclusive of; intrapersonal, interpersonal, adaptability, stress management, and general mood. The 15 subscales will provide information that will be very focused about precise skills which are in each domain. It is this report that will provide the results.

Total EQ and scale scores

A sample report on an EQ test that was carried out by Bar-On, (2002) is as follows

This table represents standard scores and the interpretive guidelines for the cores that will be obtained. This is what will be used in interpretation.


Standard score


Inconsistency index



Positive impression


Response not indicating a positive impression that is exaggerated

Total EQ


High-This represent a capacity that is well developed for both social and emotional functioning



High-This is a capacity that is well developed for expressing and understanding feelings



Average- it is an adequate capacity for managing ad also controlling emotions

Stress management


Average – it is a capacity that is adequate for managing changes and also controlling problems



Average- it is a capacity that is adequate for management of changes and also solving of problems

General mood


Average- it is a capacity that is adequate for being optimistic and positive.


Bar-On, R. (2010). Emotional intelligence: an integral part of positive psychology. South African Journal of Psychology, 40(1), 54-62.

Bar-On, R. (2002). BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory. Technical Manual, 3.

Bookbinder, S. H., & Brainerd, C. J. (2016). Emotion and false memory: The context–content paradox. Psychological bulletin, 142(12), 1315.

Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. Bantam.

Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2004). TARGET ARTICLES:" emotional Intelligence: theory, findings, and implications". Psychological inquiry, 15(3), 197-215.

Roediger, H. L., & McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of experimental psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21(4), 803.

Seamon, J. G., Guerry, J. D., Marsh, G. P., & Tracy, M. C. (2002). Accurate and false recall in the Deese/Roediger and McDermott procedure: A methodological note on sex of participant. Psychological reports, 91(2), 423-427.

Watson, D. (2005). Rethinking the mood and anxiety disorders: a quantitative hierarchical model for DSM-V. Journal of abnormal psychology, 114(4), 522.

April 26, 2023

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