Scientific Method in Surveys

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Scientific methods are procedures followed to systematically pursue knowledge containing a collection of data through formulation and recognition of a problem, observation, and experiment, and finally formulation and testing of the hypotheses. Scientists use scientific methods to construct a representation of the world accurately. Use of scientific methods as a standard procedures helps minimize on cultural and personal beliefs when developing a theory. The experimental techniques help to reduce the influence of prejudice and bias when formulating and testing a hypothesis or theory (Nardi, 2018). The scientific method has four standard steps. These consist of

1. Description and observation of a phenomenon

2. Hypothesis formulation that helps elaborate on the aspect

3. Use of hypothesis to quantitatively predict the outcome of the view

4. Performance of experiments to test the predictions using experimenters

              There are basic terminologies common in scientific methods. Observation, which is the first step of scientific methods is the ability to use body senses to collect quantitative and qualitative data. Qualitative observations are observations made using the five senses whereas quantitative observations are made using measuring instruments and are based on numerical figures. Data is evidence collected during observation. A hypothesis is a statement that predicts the results of a scientific experiment. The scientific law refers to a report that can be tested, supported and verified to be true.

              Scientific methods can be used to solve everyday activities. It is a procedure that is fundamentally critical to the physical and natural sciences. Discovery is a daily activity in science, the first step in scientific methods in discovering a problem and after that making an observation. Equipment may or may not be used during observation. The recorded observation is referred to as data. Quantitative data describes an object numerically, is also used in scientific methods. The data went through inductive reasoning and analyzed carefully. Science formulates predictions and carries out tests and experiments on the predictions. The operations may repeatedly be conducted for confirmation and verification purposes. This brings out the systematic nature of science (Denzin, 2017).

            Scientific methods offer standardized approach in performing experiments, this, in turn, helps to improve the results. Scientists are positive that they will remain with the facts and limit personal influence due to the standardization of scientific methods. It is easy to mistake a hypothesis for an explanation of a phenomenon if experiments are not performed. When a standard approach is not used, one can easily ignore data, and measurement errors can readily occur. Whenever the tests match the hypothesis, it becomes a theory. When the experiments do not coincide with the hypothesis, it becomes either disregarded or modified. The predictive ability is the crucial factor in scientific methods. There is always a possibility that an experiment on an observation that is new will conflict with a theory that is long-standing (How the Scientific Method Work, 2008).

            Scientific methods give room for approving and disapproving a hypothesis. It allows validation of experimental results after it is repeated severally. Scientific methods is a standardized way of formulating an explanation for a phenomenon. It helps in understanding how aspect and nature operate the way they do. This method supports the scientist organize ideas and procedures which gives them confidence in their findings.

            Confirmation bias is the behavior of data collection and conservation that promotes a hypothesis and disregarding data that is not useful to it. This makes people question the methods of experimentation. Often scientific methods work well when a group of related assumptions has been confirmed by performing several experiments on them, and this may become a theory. Theories hold great predictive power and are much broader in scope than hypotheses. It should be taken into consideration that the role of science is to prove and support theories wrong and not right (Nardi, 2018).

            Escaping bias is difficult for most scientists. Bias arises mainly as a result of personal and cultural beliefs. The scientists are often at a risk of filtering information based on their own opinion and experience, resulting into preference of one outcome against the other. In science, bias has to be eradicated at all costs since results ought to be reviewed and duplicated. Scientific methods give the solution to the eradication of prejudice and prejudice during research. When the steps are accurately followed, there will be minimal or no chance for bias since the procedures are standard for all scientists.

            The scientific method has played an enormous role in scientific discoveries. Many new theories have been formulated through scientific methods. Some have been passed on as scientific laws. Scientific achievements, inventions, and findings are frequently made. The papers publish discoveries throughout the year and patents filed often, scientific methods are used to achieve these discoveries. The procedure makes it easier for scientific researches to be conducted in a systematic and precise manner for the sake of obtaining accurate results (Denzin, 2017).


Nardi, P. M. (2018). Doing survey research: A guide to quantitative methods. Routledge.

How the Scientific Method Works. (2008, January 14). Retrieved from

Denzin, N. K. (2017). The research act: A theoretical introduction to sociological methods. Routledge.

October 05, 2023



Scientific Method

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