The E business

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Despite the undeniable benefits of e-commerce, such as improved convenience, productivity, and speed in operations, many risks arise on a regular basis. With the advancement in technology, many IT professionals with sinister motivations have typically increased their subjective reasons to harm, foil, and keep online trading vulnerable (Massa and Valverde 2014, p. 117). Such criminals have honed their technical expertise through the use of malware capable of controlling even online banking logins from their phones, tablets, and personal computers (Massa and Valverde 2014, p. 117). Having stolen the actual details, they can manipulate everything to work to the best of their intentions.

Similarly, our PayPal to cash exchange and body weighing services will neither be in a vacuum nor in vain to make it exclusively vulnerable to these challenges. As maintained by Wheelen and Hunger (2017, p. 129), every business is subject to the internal and external forces that contribute towards the shaping of its operation as well as influencing it in either direction, positive or negative. Therefore, this paper evaluates the possible security and fraud issues that will be most common to the e-Business and finally developing a mitigating plan of curbing the problems. Likewise, we will identify the anticipated legal and ethical concerns as well as the initiatives of addressing them.

Possible Security and Fraud Issues of PayPal to Cash Exchange and Body Weighing Services

Defaulting to Settle Training Fees by Those Scheduled for Healthy Living Training

In reminiscence, one of our strategies for capital realization will be to conduct distant training at the convenience of our clients who are interested in better healthy living at a cost. The exercise, though rewarding, would appear challenging since some members would fail to make payments, thus rendering the firm bankrupt. In agreement, Wheelen and Hunger (2017, p. 205) affirm that instances, where customers fail to settle their debts to the business, would lead to several negative consequences including the closure of such enterprises.

Some Could Unnecessarily Interfere With Our Online Calculators for BMI Calculation

Because the e-commerce in the proposal will include online assessment of BMI, there are chances that some individuals, driven by malicious motives, would proceed to change the programmed formula for calculating the BMI. The happening would compromise not only the effectiveness of our body measurements but also creating a possible chance of losing new and existing customers. As maintained by Dietz et al. (2015, p. 2527), the overweight is ever cautious and updated on the progress of their body weights after every duration. Therefore, any abnormal variation in the result due to unknown interference with the online BMI calculator would trigger the negative response from the clients.

Some People could be Illegally Sending Mails to Our Clients to Seek Their Private Info/ Phishing

Notably, our PayPal to cash exchange business would be prone to intruders who would be driven by the urge to send unnecessary emails to some of the clients. Usually, the cybercriminals steal the personal information of individuals and finally using the data to pursue their self-ambitions. By the use of public WI-FI, the hackers could penetrate into the firewalls through the old security systems or hijacking login credentials to access the details of clients (Gaur 2016, p. 4007). In reckon the purported strategy to market our services will be through emails as well as for giving notifications immediately the exercise of PayPal-cash exchange will be over. Therefore, by breaking into our database, they would illegally transact with our clients and serve them during money exchange and finally send them to email to confirm the success of the deals. Whenever such scenarios occur, they could directly reduce the revenue.

Some Individuals Would be willing to Request for Cash Exchange with Fogged PayPal Account Details

Another common fraud that would be common to our business is the use of stolen PayPal accounts while requesting for cash exchange. Because our services will be online-based with a minimum requirement for physical representation of the clients in the transfer PayPal to cash, someone could undoubtedly send fake details of PayPal to the Website during the cash conversion (Vishwakarma 2017, p. 655). Although before the transaction, some security documents like the photocopy of identity cards and passports are necessary, still there would be a loophole. Notably, such IDs are prone to editing, an instance that would subject the business to certain lawsuit cases.

Demands for Advanced Fee for Healthy Living and Weight Reducing Services

Sometimes, hackers would enter the privacy and the websites of various businesses to obtain the details of the clients (Vishwakarma 2017, p. 656). After that, they would engage them in a series of conversation while asking them to make prior payment. Similarly, the training for healthy living that we intend to offer to the clients would be faced by this trickery. While pretending to be the officials from our enterprise, some people could con unconscious clients to make early payment for the services after which they vanish.

Mitigation Plan

Following the anticipated uncertainties to the proposed PayPal cash exchange and Weight reducing services, the mitigation plan will help the business to address some of the challenges and frauds that will be common to both the customers and the enterprise itself.

Objective of the Plan

The main aim of the mitigation plan will be to detect and eliminate any scam that would inconvenience the customers who are exchanging PayPal to cash and the clients of online weight reducing amenities.

Planning Process

Formation of fraud mitigation team

As a part of the public engagement process, we will appoint a local planning team comprising of the management team, other premises that are also in the online money exchange through PayPal and other means, the technology experts, and a section of chosen clients who will be of great potential for the firm (Wheelen and Hunger 2017, p.87). Apparently, the team will be taking part in meetings and hearings on the best approaches to reduce fraud, getting inputs from various parties that would be essential to minimize occasional conning, review the final draft of the plan, and assisting implementing the proposed ideas.

Fraud assessment (Hazards and Vulnerabilities)

Having formed a team to spearhead risk mitigation process, it is necessary for an extensive evaluation of the scams to be done. Under this step, the points under consideration include the type of risk, the probability of occurrence, and the parties that are vulnerable to the outcomes. That will involve the work of the group under the consultation of the IT experts.

Type of Fraud Probability of occurrence Affected Parties (Business/Client) Interference with online BMI calculator May occur Customers phishing Probably will occur Both business and client Coning to make prior payment for healthiness training May occur customers Requesting for cash exchange using fogged PayPal account May occur Business Defaulting to pay for weight reducing programs May occur Business

Increase training and awareness concerning the frauds

Before the commencement of PayPal cash exchange business and weight reducing business, what follows risk evaluation and identification is comprehensive awareness and education on how to be cautious in curbing the anticipated scams. To achieve this exercise, we would hire IT experts whose roles will be to train the staff and founders of the business to map their functions in fraud identification and immediate response (Wheelen and Hunger 2017, p.87). The bottom line is to make the entire workforce to be conversant with all the fraud control and deterrence software that is necessary for detecting and preventing hackers_x0092_ intrusion before series effects are realized.

Development of more secure website

In collaboration with IT experts, we would strive to establish a highly protected web. The approach would include registering with privacy institutions then posting a seal of approval on the website, availing clear info concerning our confidentialities at the site in a way that is easily accessible to all the customers, and creating a page that informs customers about our safety control techniques and approaches.

Fraud screening

In order to conduct an efficient fraud screening, we would install scum-screening tools mainly for identifying high-risk transactions. The process would involve the use of Address Verification Service to determine details of clients before giving cash during PayPal exchange. Additionally, we would cautiously review the IP addresses and ask the IT experts to treat the IP as high risk.

Frequent monitoring and review of the relevant frauds

In ensuring that there is reduced the occurrence of scams such as phishing, we would provide a continuous monitoring after specified periods. Notably, this exercise would incorporate commissioning the website experts to erase the modern security features that would continuously strengthen safety.

The Potential Ethical and Legal Issues that Can Impact the Business

Ethical Issues

Privacy issues/invasion

Ideally, several electronic payment mechanisms have the capability of identifying the clients; hence the move to protect the clients using electronic payment is very paramount (Chitrangda 2014, p.552). In this essence, the PayPal to cash exchange business will ensure the full confidentiality of the users and the maximum security of their details. Even to the individuals who will be using online calculators through the website to calculate their BMI and seeking weight reducing info, it will be of great necessity to maintain their confidentiality against any disclosure to other parties.

Web tracking issues/web proofing

Apparently, E-businesses are expected to draw and capture each information on the manner of how visitors use the site primarily for the log files (Strauss 2016, p. 378). The practical analysis of log data calls for converting the data into application service or installing software that captures every detail of a client and the way he uses the website. Finally, the tracking history is obtained and stored on the customer's PC and hard disc so that every moment of visiting the site, the computer automatically reports (Chitrangda 2014, p.552). However, in case of installation of inefficient web tracking system, it would raise concerns and complaints from the customers. On the other hand, some attackers would create fake websites that are counterfeit to the original for asking the private info from the clients.

The manner of handling employees

It is highly ethical to serve the workers with respect while maintaining their dignity. The e-Business will have many employees including the trainers to the clients who will be opting for healthy living awareness (McMurrian and Matulich 2016, p. 83). Therefore, we will be committed to giving valuable attention by reacting to every need based on the set conditions. Despite the efforts, our firm would still be spotted for inappropriate handling of some workforce. Such scenario, whenever occur, would not only lead to a court case with the company but also compromise the credibility and corporate image of the establishment.

Legal Issues

Copyrights/copyrights infringement

For the PayPal to cash exchange business, matters of intellectual property rights such as the copyrights will be applicable and highly effective. According to Chitrangda (2014, p. 553), copyrights give exclusive claims and all the legal rights to the inventor of the new idea as purely original before it is disseminated to the public. While there is a sudden death of the copyright holder, the document expires. In e-commerce and software industry, the copyright infringement is a common case that is often exacerbated by the heightened doubling of the contents of initial software due to easy sharing of software products (Bently and Sherman 2014, p. 435). Therefore, our PayPal to cash exchange software will be subject to the copyright law of which the failure would lead to disclosure or other penalties to the firm from the intellectual property act representatives and authority.

Patent rights

Patents warranty all the exclusive rights to owners of new products and services for a fixed period (Chitrangda 2014, p.553). In the US, patents last for seventeen years while in the UK it takes a total of two decades. Notably, the accreditation is given upon the accomplishment of three steps like lack of imitation of the innovation, sufficiency rather than a trivial venture, and the capability of the industrial application (Bently and Sherman 2014, p. 436). Hence, should our PayPal to cash exchange enterprise fails to meet the mentioned standards, we would face hurdles and obstacles and hurdles from the patenting authorities that would hinder the efficiency of the business.

Trademarks issues/use of cyber-squatting to infringe trademark

Trademarks are unique graphic designs that are used by various businesses to identify their products from the rest (Bently and Sherman 2014, p. 437). The means is required to be distinctive to avoid confusion with other trademarks, original, and also preventing misleading. Therefore, our new venture, PayPal to cash exchange will be subject to this rule. If the enterprise is less keen to despise the originality and resemblance of the trademark, it will be liable to jeopardies (Chitrangda 2014, p.554). On the other hand, some individuals would purposely register and use the domain name of our company out of unawareness to maliciously interfere with the trademarks.

Solutions to Ethical and Legal Issues of the E-commerce

Increased website security/tracking

Sometimes, internet hackers and attackers would establish misleading websites through the web proofing approach, an instance that is calling for increased security of the sites to avoid compromising privacy matters (Chitrangda 2014, p.554). To achieve this aspect, the process required is the use of cookies, different application programs, and site registration practices. Cookies raise a batch of concerns involving the privacy. Additionally, they can collect the personal browsing details of the clients and finally transferring the data to the relevant PC of such individuals_x0092_ hard disk (Massa and Valverde 2014, p. 118). The software would assist in scrutinizing the concealed intentions of hackers that jeopardize the confidentiality of the clients using the website for various to request for PayPal cash exchange. On the other hand, we would develop a more secure means of registration of the new entrants to websites while submitting their details and emails.

Using more secured approaches to maintain privacy

E-commerce especially those dealing with online payment and cash exchange requires well-described tactics to avoid interfering with the ethical standard of privacy (Massa and Valverde 2014, p. 118). It is therefore of great necessity to avail robust protection methodologies especially to those who are purporting to have PayPal cash exchange to minimize instances of someone else taking personal details of clients to request for illegal payments.

Besides using cookies to trap and maintain the confidential data and the manner of using the websites, it is vital for companies to use the installed monitoring systems to observe the email and web activities as a process intended to keep the privacy (Chitrangda 2014, p.554). Through the approach, we would be able to ensure that transactions are channeled to the right individuals while identifying the hackers who are purporting to invade the website as well as requesting for unnecessary PayPal cash payments having fogged customer_x0092_s info.

On the other hand, other processes such as adoption of privacy guardian and _x0091_my privacy software_x0092_ could tighten the online confidentiality by erasing the cache of the browsers, surfing history, and the cookies (Massa and Valverde 2014, p. 119). Also, the software such as the Ad-Aware would assist in detecting and removing the spyware. Apparently, the fulfillment of the practices would be rewarding in curbing phishing frauds that would be possible to our clients where insecure plans are put in place.

Proper adherence to the intellectual property requirements and proper security measures

The sets of intellectual property legalities that are of concern for every e-commerce often entail copyrights, trademarks, and patents. However, despite the approaches necessary to observe the policies, some individuals and internet hackers would secretly infringe copyrights and patents as well as cyber-squatting tactic to overstep trademarks (Chitrangda 2014, p.555). Therefore, the process necessary to solve these jeopardies includes engaging the intellectual property experts to draft an authorized copyright that is unique and purely original, designing a specific trademark for our business, and developing a credible patent that is free from concerns of imitation (Bently and Sherman 2014, p. 439). Also, we would ensure full safety of these intellectual properties using specific security features such as authentication and non-repudiation to protect the business intellectual properties.

Handling employees and customers with a lot of integrity and trustworthiness

Keen attention to employees_x0092_ needs, grievances and concerns goes beyond recommended ethical implications but also boosting their anxiety to have self-inspiration to meet customers_x0092_ expectations while valuing their values (McMurrian and Matulich 2016, p. 83). By considering their requirements and ethos, they will be highly committed to performing the assigned tasks to induce good outcomes. In this approach, we would promote responsible actions to both the clients and employees by attending to their needs as a tool of empowering them and attaining efficiency.

The process that is necessary to establish ethics will include writing code of ethics to define the roles of our workers like PayPal cash exchange agents, and online advisers n weight reducing matters, conducting ethics and compliance training programs to the staff (McMurrian and Matulich 2016, p. 84). Also, the top stakeholders will be the role models in practicing and enforcing good values.

Overall, e-commerce is prone to various challenges, issues, and frauds such as phishing, interference with online BMI calculator, and fogging wrong PayPal account to request payment. The ethical and legal issues that would be common to PayPal cash exchange and weight reducing includes privacy invasion, web proofing, mode of handling employees, copyright and patent rights infringements, and use of cybersquatting to overstep trademarks. On the other hand, the solutions to such jeopardies incorporate increased website security and tracking, more secured approaches to maintaining privacy, adherence to intellectual property rights, and supporting trustworthiness and integrity of employees. Therefore, every proprietor and organization should be at the forefront to identify the possible risks and form a mitigation plan to avoid the recurrence of such frauds.


Bently, L. and Sherman, B., 2014. Intellectual property law. Oxford University Press, USA.

Chitrangda, 2014. E-commerce: Business & legal ethics. International Journal of Scientific Research and Management. 2(2), 550-558.

Dietz, W.H., Baur, L.A., Hall, K., Puhl, R.M., Taveras, E.M., Uauy, R. and Kopelman, P., 2015. Management of obesity: improvement of health-care training and systems for prevention and care. The Lancet, 385(9986), pp.2521-2533.

Gaur, C., 2016. Security Perspective in e-Commerce. International Journal of Engineering Science, 4007.

Massa, D. and Valverde, R., 2014. A fraud detection system based on anomaly intrusion detection systems for e-commerce applications. Computer and Information Science, 7(2), p.117.

Megaw, G. and Flowerday, S.V., 2010, August. Phishing within e-commerce: A trust and confidence game. Information Security for South Africa (ISSA), 2010 (pp. 1-8). IEEE

McMurrian, R.C. and Matulich, E., 2016. Building customer value and profitability with business ethics. Journal of Business & Economics Research, 14(3), p.83-84.

Strauss, J., 2016. E-marketing. Routledge.

Vishwakarma, P.K., 2017. emerging online frauds: detection and their possible controlling strategies in e-business. International Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering & Management (IJIREM), 4(3), 655-657.

Wheelen, T.L. and Hunger, J.D., 2017. Strategic management and business policy. pearson.

November 09, 2022

Economics Life


Industry Personal Finance

Subject area:

E Commerce Security Banking

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