The Fermi Question

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a). To answer the Fermi question provided in question 1, we are supposed to know an estimated number of years lived by a Canadian in his or her life. Secondly, we should know the number of kilograms of salt (sodium chloride) consumed by one Canadian in a day.


The life expectancy of an average Canadian is approximately= 81.2 years (Costanza, Robert and Bernard pg 193-196).

A single Canadians consume about 3400mg of sodium chloride in a day (Garriguet, Didier 47).

Therefore, the amount of sodium chloride or salt consumed by a Canadian in a day in kilograms is =


3400mg      =?

Therefore, 3400/1000000=0.0034 kgs

The amount of salt taken by an average Canadian in one year in kgs =


Thus, the amount of salt taken by a Canadian in his or her lifetime =


b). density=mass/volume

Therefore, volume=mas/density

The density of sodium chloride (salt) =2.16g/cm3

The density of sodium chloride in kg/m3= 2.16*1000=2160kg/m3

Therefore, the volume of salt consumed= 100.77/2160 =0.04665m3

Therefore, my calculated quantity would fill a kitchen cupboard of around 64.8cm in length, 64.8cm in width and 64.8cm in height.

C, the total volume of salt consumed by everyone in Canada would fill the inverted pyramid in 951times.


The length, width and height of the pyramid according to the picture and the scale provided are;

55.5*55.5*18= 55444.5m3

The current population of Canada is 37048605 people.

The volume of salt consumed by one Canadian in a day is 0.0034kg.

Therefore, the volume of salt consumed by all people in Canada in a day is;

 37048605*0.0034= 125965.257kgs.

The volume is; 125965.257/2160=58.317m3

Times of the consumed volume of salt that would fill the pyramid =


=951 times.

Question 2

The Bayes rule =P (A if B) = (P (B if A) P(A))/P(B)

To get the figure out of the P(positive), given that 82% of women with breast cancer get positive mammographic, and 95% of women without breasts cancer gets positive mammography. We, therefore, need to get the average of these two, weighted by the proportion of women with breast cancer.

P positive if cancer) p(cancer) +p (positive if no cancer) p (no cancer


0.82*P(Cancer ) +0.95*P(cancer)

Hence we can get the percentage or the P (positive) by use of the law of total probability as shown below.

Among the 1000 women who undergo the routine screening, one per cent have been found to have cancer and ninety-nine have been found to be cancer free. Therefore, 100 women have cancer, and 900 women are cancer free.

To the 100 women who have cancer, 82percent, hence 82 women tests positive and 18 per cent hence 18 women tests negative.

To the 900 women who were found cancer free, 95 percent totaling 855 women goes to the screening, while the 5 percent, which amounts to five women never attend the screening of cancer.

Therefore, 82/ (82+855) = 4.91%

Question 3

HIV/AIDS resulted IN the deadly disease that took the lives of many people in the whole world. The high number of HIV positive people brought in the attention of the world leading to the statistics that were conducted in 2016.

36.7 million

This is the approximate number of people living with HIV/AIDS in the world by the end of 2016. Of all these people, there were around 2.1 million children whom most of them were believed to have contracted the disease from their parents during their birth.


About this percentage of people living with HIV/AIDS in the whole world were aware of their HIV status by the end of 2016.

11 million

This is the number  of people who are HIV positive but have not yet accessed the HIV testing services

1 million

This is the number of people who died of AIDS related illness in 2016. This brought the total number of people who passed on from AIDS to 35.0 million since the start of the epidemic.

19.4 million

This is the number of people who were living with HIV from south and eastern Africa, recording the highest number compared to other regions of the world


Works cited

Costanza, Robert, and Bernard C. Patten. "Defining and predicting sustainability." Ecological economics 15.3 (1995): 193-196.

Garriguet, Didier. "Sodium consumption at all ages." Health Reports 18.2 (2007): 47.

September 18, 2023




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