The Importance of Nanotechnology

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In our current world, technological advancement is roughly understood by many as the ability of a device to work fast, efficiently, and be physically compact. Concerning this, today well have a look into the nanotechnology world and specifically the nanosensors. Nanosensors are sensors created using nanomaterials which are either chemical or mechanical in nature to monitor various physical parameters on a nanoscale such as temperature presence or chemical components in an element among many others. Nano sensors are able to detect minute changes in the surrounding where deployed because they functionalize with chemical and biological molecules (AZONano). Also, nanosensors can be tailored in specificity whereby the nanosensors are able to detect specific changes in the surrounding. Nanosensors can be used in industries whose activities may produce toxic gases whereby the nanosensors detect the presence or level of the toxic gas and generate outputs to alert relevant personnel to take precautionary measures (AZONano).

Importance of Nanosensors

Nanosensors are very important because they are able to detect miniscule changes in a certain element compared to the equivalent conventional sensors. This means that nanosensors possess a more powerful ability to detect certain elements as they can detect atomic changes as well as biological cell changes which the conventional sensors are not able to do. Also, naosensors have an increased specificity level as they are able to detect the specific changes that result in detectable changes (Pulecio, et al). Another importance of nanosensors is that they are able to reveal the physical properties of particles at a nanoscale which cannot be identified in bulk materials (Devreese, 721). Nano sensors are important because they are able to be placed in critical regions due to their portability which may prove tasking or impossible to conventional sensors.

How Nanosensors Work

The operation of nanosensors is interesting but at the same time it is a bit complex; electrochemical nanosensors operate by detecting a resistance change in of the nanomaterial during binding with an analyte which causes scattering, depletion or accumulation of the charge carriers (AZONano). For example, in a carbon nanotube sensor, the presence a molecule of Nitrogen dioxide will remove an electron from the nanotube sensor resulting in less conductivity hence detection of the element.

In the case of mechanical nanosensors, the sensors focus on measuring the electrical changes in the surroundings where they are placed. Some of the mechanical nanosensors depend on the changes in capacitance by monitoring variance levels (AZONano). For example, the MEMS nanosensors mostly used in the car system airbags are mechanical and monitor the bending level of the shaft which varies with the car's acceleration and this measured as variance in capacitance.


Nanofabrication refers to the building of nanotechnology devices which includes nanosesnsors and the most common method used is the top-down strategy whereby the current technologies are miniaturized. In top-down nanofabrication, the integrated circuits (IC) get scaled down by removing a single atom after another one until the desired structure is attained (Rouse). The top-down fabrication is used when creating nano structures that require long range for connections.

The other nanofabrication method is bottom-up also known as self-assembly which is more complex whereby the nanochips are assembled atom by atom until the desired structure emerges. The assembly of the atoms is done with the help of programmable nanomachines which are capable of identifying and interacting with the respective atoms (Rouse). The bottom up nanofabrication method is most appropriate for short-range nano scale dimensions.

Problems Associated with Nanofabrication

Just like any other technological manufacturing process nanofabrication faces several problems and one of them is such as the difficulty in avoiding fouling which entails the accumulation of unwanted elements on the sensors after interaction of the nanosensors with other elements in the surrounding. When fouling takes place the nanosensors efficiency becomes reduced and may even give out inaccurate information since the foreign objects obstruct them. Another problem associated with nanofabrication of nanosensors is that the nanofabrication process requires new and advanced tools which are very expensive (Luttge). At times due to the high cost of tools to assist in nanofabrication of the nanosensors, it becomes hard for the nanofacbrication process to be completed. In addition, there is another problem associated with nanofabrication of nanosensors which is the application of preconcentration and separation techniques in order to attain the desired analyte to prevent saturation.

Ideas to Improve Nanofabrication Process

There are several ways on how the nanofabrication process can be improved to increase the efficiency or hasten up the creation process. One of the ways to improve nanofabrication process is by combining top-down and bottom-up nanofabrication techniques since in seclusion, the individual processes are fine but when combined the nanosensors being created will be more superior and efficient since they will possess qualities from both processes such as being long range and short range sensors at the same time. Another idea to improve the nanofabrication process is by conducting the process in a self-sterilizing environment which has no contaminants to obtain an accurate reading and be able to calibrate the nanoscales effectively (Bhattacharyya). Contaminants can interact with the sensors during the nanofabrication process thereby making the sensors become inaccurate when used the respective application regions.

Works Cited

AZONano. Nanosensors; A Definition, Applications and How Nanosensors Work. Retrieved from:


Bhattacharyya, Bijoy. Electrochemical micromachining for nanofabrication, MEMS and Nanotechnology. Elsevier Inc. 2015. Retrieved from:

Devreese, Jozef T. “Importance of Nanosensors: Feynman's Vision and the Birth of Nanotechnology.” MRS Bulletin, vol. 32, no. 9, 2007, pp. 718–725., doi:10.1557/mrs2007.147. Print

Luttge, Regina. Microfabrication for industrial Applications. Elsevier Inc. Retrieved from:

Pulecio, Julian, et al. "CRISPR/Cas9-based Engineering of the Epigenome." Cell Stem Cell 21.4 (2017): 431-447.

Rouse, Margaret. Nanoabrication. TechTarget. Retrieved from:


August 09, 2023




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