The Role of Age and Gender in the Division of Labor

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In farming villages such as Site 31

In farming villages such as Site 31, factors such as age and gender-structured the way labor was divided. According to the excavations that were conducted by the archeologists, we can be able to tell how the division of work in the villages was structured. Through the excavations, the role of infants, juveniles and adults can be determined, we can also tell the role of the male and female in such villages. In this case, we can be able to tell the role of the way labor was divided by looking at the different associated grave goods that were found in the burial site. According to the archeologists, the burial site contained remains of 275 infants who were not more than two years old, in their graves, there were no associated grave goods that were found. This means that in Site 31 and other similar farming villages, infants were not given any work during the subdivision of labor. The graves of the juveniles and adults contained grave goods; some tools were associated with the kind of work that the person who had died was doing. The factor of age played a major role in the division of labor, juveniles and adults were involved in labor while infants were not supposed to work in any way. Gender also affected the way labor was divided. According to the goods retrieved during excavation, the male adolescents were buried with slings. The factors of age and gender come to play in this case, in the division of labor, the adolescent males were supposed to hunt wild animals for food. Male adults were buried with hammer-stones, this shows that the adult males were supposed to work as craftsmen. Female was also buried with different grave goods which reflected the kind of work that they were supposed to do. Females were buried with spinning, sewing implements and weaving showing that they were spinners. Goods that were produced in each site were consumed locally; this is because there is no evidence of trading activities, the goods did not circulate beyond the site.

At Site 37, production of weapons and fabrics took place

At Site 37, production of weapons and fabrics took place. This is because two workshops were found by archeologists, one workshop was for manufacturing weapons while the other workshop was for the production of woven fabrics. There was also no evidence of other activities taking place in this site. In this Site, there is evidence of part-time craft specialization and full-time craft production at the site. For part-time craft specialization, archeologists found that the residential structures at the site were inhabited on a seasonal basis, this was from September to December. This means that the craft specialization was on a part-time basis. For the full-time craft production, the archeologists found out there was one residential structure that was inhabited all through the year meaning that the activities at the workshop were done throughout the year on a full-time basis.

Site 40 was inhabited by artisans

Site 40 was inhabited by artisans who included; woodcarvers, potters, metal smiths and jeweler-lapidaries. The inhabitants of the site were distinguished with the kind of work that they did. As archeologists excavated their remains, the grave goods that were included in the graves showed the kind of work that the inhabitants did while in the Site. Each artisan was buried with grave goods that were related to the kind of work that he or she did while she was alive.

Site 42 was an offering site

Site 42 was an offering site for the people who lived in nearby sites during that period. According to the finding of the archeologists, the site conducted activities that were spiritual; the Site could also be used by the leader of the site and the nearby sites to rule. The adults who were buried in the site can be said to be spiritual leaders or rulers who looked after the people in the Site and the nearby Sites.

The residents of Site 43 were nobles

The residents of Site 43 were nobles, according to the archeological findings, the residential unit described was the palace of the king which had a public area that could be used for public gatherings. The site also contained burial vaults; there was a lot of effort and resources that were devoted towards the development of the burial vaults, this means that they were created for people who were noble in the society such as the king and his family. In the burial vault, the 50-year-old man who was 1.6 meters tall was the king, the two 25-year-old women and the 30-year woman were his wives. The trunk contained a juvenile and three infants who were the children of the king.

Social stratification in the societies

It can be noted that the societies that lived in these sites were socially stratified, there were unequal distribution and inequality in the places. For instance, in the farmer's villages, the size of the floor of the house averaged at 48 square meters, the population was high meaning that they were congested, many people had died among them children were the most affected. Life expectancy was only 35 years. In Site 37, the houses were more significant and populations much smaller; the houses covered 52 square meters. Site 40 was a specialized residential center that was for artisans, the communities were much smaller, and the number of people who had died was much lower, this means health was much improved. The case is similar for Site 42 and 43 which belonged to religious leaders and the nobles respectively. Different burial goods were included in the graves of the dead, and this showed the variations that existed in social status. There existed social stratification; this means that the higher the class you belong, the better quality of life you lead as compared to those who were in the lower levels.

November 24, 2023

Art Culture History

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