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Construction is a high-risk endeavor that calls for a high level of expertise and safety precautions (Salas & Kozlowski, 2013). The only way to teach the staff these abilities is to give a thorough training. It is critical that the human resources professional investigate the applicability and relevance of the training program ( Biech, 2017). The safety training program's needs assessment is used to achieve this. The benefits of the needs assessment program are as follows:
to assess the training's applicability. Offering training to employees is one of the methods that can be used to resolve a problem among the employees (Flynn & Chao, 2013). However, the method may not necessarily yield the desired results. Since organizing the training requires a lot of resources, it is necessary to carry out an analysis to determine whether planning the training will solve the current problem (Sahu, 2012). The research also helps in establishing whether there exist other less costly yet effective methods to address the problem.
To determine the right people that need the skills. Organizing training before the needs assessment is a risky approach ( Biech, 2017). This is because the construction industry has several categories of employees. Therefore, it is important to determine which group of the employees need the training to solve the universal problem. This will save the company from spending resources on the wrong category of employees which would result in the persistence of the problem (Flynn & Chao, 2013).
To evaluate the best method for the training. There are different styles of training employees. The human resource department should determine the most applicable training methods for the target group (Salas & Kozlowski, 2013). The decision should be based on the opinion of the employees, the cost analysis of the training program, the convenience of carrying out the exercise and the relevance of the task.
Discuss Three Reasons Why Companies May Decide Not to Perform a Needs Assessment
The decision on whether to carry out a needs assessment is made by the training and development department of the construction industry. There are instances when the director may decide to skip this step and begin the training immediately. The success of such training is dependent on various factors, but there is a high risk of failure (Sahu, 2012). The following are some reasons that can lead to skipping the needs assessment step:
Lack of management support for the needs assessment process. The evaluation process is expensive and may require a lot of economic and human resources to be conducted. The director of the training and development needs support from the company's administration ( Biech, 2017). If such support is not forthcoming, the director may decide to skip this process altogether. Some manager prefers direct action to an analysis which the human resource and the training and development departments are obliged to follow.
Limited time and resources. The needs assessment process requires extensive research using questionnaires, interviews and other time-consuming methods. Depending on the urgency of the matter, the director of the training and development department may opt to skip the process (Flynn & Chao, 2013). In this case, there have been several fatalities in the company's construction works. The safety measures training is therefore deemed urgent, and the director can decide to skip this process.
Inappropriate skills in the needs assessment. The process of assessing the cost, benefits, and relevance of a training program requires skills and expertise. If the company lacks staff with the necessary skills, it becomes financially prudent to skip the needs assessment stage (Salas & Kozlowski, 2013). This is due to the exorbitant cost that may be incurred in hiring experts in the conducting, analyzing and deducing the suitability of the training program.
Identify Three Stakeholder Groups that should be involved in the Needs Assessment
The primary goal of the needs assessment exercise is to determine the need for a training program. This is achieved through active involvement of organizational groups including:
Subject Matter Experts
Explain Why Each Stakeholder Group should be involved in the Needs Assessment
Upper-Level Managers. The top management of the company help in aligning the training program with the company's mission, vision, and objectives (Sahu, 2012). They critically assess the value that the training program will add to the company and whether it is worth to invest on it.
Middle-Level Managers. This category of stakeholders offers important advice on the availability of human and financial resources to implement the needs assessment and the training program. The managers determine whether the training is aligned with the business strategy and evaluate the actualization of the training program.
Subject Matter Experts. These are members of staff in the construction company that possesses the necessary expertise in the field of the needs assessment (Salas & Kozlowski, 2013). They provide insights into the required knowledge, skills, abilities, and equipment in carrying out the needs assessment and training program.
Describe the Method Used To Gather Information from Each Stakeholder Group
The process of gathering information from the stakeholders is vital since it determines the success of the needs assessment and the training program ( Biech, 2017). The following methods are used in obtaining information from the stakeholders:
Survey and Questionnaires. This method uses different formats of surveys and questionnaires. The questions asked can be open-ended, forced-choice, priority ranking or projections depending on the target population (Sahu, 2012).
Advantage. The process reaches a large number of the target population in a short time while saving the company of financial resources as it is inexpensive.
Disadvantage. The process of preparing an adequate survey or a questionnaire requires a lot of time, and the nature of the questions may prevent free question-answering environment.
Interviews. This method involves the use of formal, informal, structured or non-structured interviews to gather information. The best method is determined by the availability, confidence and the nature of the questions to be asked in the needs assessment process.
Advantage. Allows for spontaneous response thus can capture more information from the target individuals (Salas & Kozlowski, 2013).
Disadvantage. Requires a highly skilled interview to get the required information. It is also time-consuming.
Advisory committees. This involves the use of experts in the area that needs training ( Biech, 2017). The committee researches the best methods, benefits and the need for a training program for a particular category of people.
Advantage. It is simple and inexpensive
Disadvantage. The advisory committee does not compose the target audience which may lead to incomplete and bias report.
Tests. Tests are vital in determining the issues affecting a particular group of individuals which is helpful in structuring the training program (Flynn & Chao, 2013). The tests are carried out to the target population in a free environment.
Advantage. Easily quantifiable and can be compared to draft a comprehensive report.
Disadvantage. The reliability of the questions used can be questionable.
Analyze Four Safety Skills Gaps/Training Needs of Roofing Supervisors by Comparing Exhibit 2 to Exhibit 1 (Both Attached).
The following gaps were identified:
No use of protective headgear. Construction sites are hazardous, and the employees should be protected from falling objects (Sahu, 2012). Every employee must have a headgear to protect them from such hazards. This was not the case with the employees who exposed their heads to the dangers.
Fall protection systems were not used. The falling protection system must always be used in the construction sites. These include the guard rail systems, warning line systems and the safety harnesses and ropes ( Biech, 2017). This is to guarantee the employees safety from the falling objects common in the construction sites.
Employees did not wear eye and ear protection gadgets. Construction sites are characterized by excessive noise and light levels that can be damaging to the eyes and the ears (Flynn & Chao, 2013). The employees should wear glasses and ear muffs to protect themselves from the hazard.
The walking paths were not clear. The paths were littered with hazardous materials including nails and stones (Salas & Kozlowski, 2013). This is a serious gap as these paths should be clear to protect the employees from accidents.
Identify Four Safety-Related Learning Objectives to Incorporate into the Training Program Based on Your Needs Assessment. Also, Identify One Safety-Related Learning Objective or Behavioral Change That Should Result From Each Learning Objective
To equip the employees with the knowledge on the must-have materials at the construction site. The goals should lead to the possession and proper use of the materials to avert future accidents.
To train the employees on the role of OSHA in maintaining injuries records and improving working conditions at the construction site. This should result in proper record keeping by the supervisors for future reference and action.
To equip the employees with the necessary communication skills in the construction sites. The implementation of this objective results into proper communication between the clients and the employees and consequently increase the employees' productivity.
To offer training on how to use different construction sites equipment safely. This will improve the approach of the employees on the protective gears as they appreciate their usefulness.
Identify One Non-Safety-Related Skills Gap for Roofing Supervisors
The roofing supervisors employed individuals with limited English Speaking ability.
Explain How this Non-Safety-Related Skills Gap May Have Contributed to the Accidents
English was the primary language of communication on the site of construction. As a result, any difficulty in communication with fellow employees and the client led to a poor execution of the plans and misuse of materials. This may have resulted in accidents that could be avoided through asking for guidance or help on the materials and equipment.
Describe Two Strategies that May Improve Training Transfer at Each of the Following Stages of the Training Process
Training Transfer: Before Training Takes Place
Prepare trainees. The trainees should be informed of the training in time. They should be told what the objectives of the training are to ensure that they entirely get involved in the process ( Biech, 2017). This will raise the desire to learn and implement the lessons. To increase their interests, the managers can use testimonials of success stories of an individual who underwent similar training.
Foster Motivation. The organizers of the training should ensure that they motivate the employees to attend and participate in the training ( Biech, 2017). This can be achieved through gifts, inspirational speakers and other methods that will encourage the employees.
Training Transfer: During the Training Program
Illustrates the underlying principles. The trainer should show the employees the principles behind every action and how the results of its implementation will affect their welfare (Salas & Kozlowski, 2013). When the employees understand the principle, they will become more committed towards its implementation.
Use of Questions. The training session should be lively to capture the attention of the trainees throughout the session ( Biech, 2017). This will help in ensuring that the trainees acquire as much as possible of the information.
Training Transfer: After Training Takes Place
Ensure Ongoing Support. The employees should be given both material, technological and emotional support to help them implement the lessons learned.
Relapse Prevention training. The trainer should identify the areas where the employees are likely to revert to their old habits and concentrate on preventing such an occurrence. This is achieved through informing the employees of the relapse possibility and scheduling retraining programs for them (Flynn & Chao, 2013).
Identify Two Effective Delivery Methods for the Safety Training Program and Justify Your Choice
Simulation. The construction industry requires hands-on experience. An outdoor and role playing approach would be the most ideal to train field employees.
On-the-Job. The direct participation of the employees in the training program maximizes the skills transfer and reduces the chances of a relapse ( Biech, 2017).
Identify Sites or Facilities Where the Training Should Take Place, Based 0n Your Chosen Delivery Methods
The construction site. The simulation and on-the-job approach can be implemented in the real job circumstances. This will help in the mastery of skills and ensure that they are implemented correctly.
Incidents sites. The employees can be taken to sites of injuries to be trained on the best methods to prevent such occurrences (Sahu, 2012). This provides an opportunity for a mentor to guide the employees in the implementation program.
Recommend Internally or Externally Designed Training Programs
Vendors and Suppliers training employees
New employee training by managers
Justify Your Recommendation of Design Type
Vendors and suppliers are a rich source of information on how to effectively use various equipment in the construction industry. When the number of employees involved is vast and technical, the vendors' experience and expertise become crucial to the success of the implementation of the plan. Additionally, the new employees need to know the mission and objectives of the company. They should, therefore, be oriented by the existing employees.
Determine Who Should Facilitate the Safety Training to the Roofing Supervisors
The director of training and development in the construction company should consult the human resource department and the managers on the planning of the safety training of the roofing supervisors.
Justify Your Choice of the Facilitator(s)
The director is in charge of the training and development department (Flynn & Chao, 2013). They should have noted that there are gaps in the construction sites due to the reported accidents. As such, they would suggest a needs analysis to the managerial department. On approval, the human resource department would offer the required human and financial resources to facilitate the training.
Describe a Process for Pilot-Testing the Safety Training Program before Delivery to All Roofing Supervisors
The safety training program requires being tested to ensure that it will deliver all the desired changes to the roofing supervisors. The training program should be tested through active involvement of the roofing supervisors to deliver the most pressing issues encountered in their daily activities. This will be achieved through involving representatives of the roofing supervisors.
Recommend Two Effective Strategies for Motivating Roofing Supervisors to Participate in the Safety Training Program Effectively
Self-efficacy. The training model should ensure that the trainees have self-confidence in accomplishing the tasks set for them ( Biech, 2017). This can be achieved through starting with simpler tasks that are performed by all the roofing supervisors and progressively move to the challenging tasks.
Reinforcement. This involves the appreciation when simple tasks are achieved. When the action performed is reinforced by positive comments, there is a high chance of retention and recurrence in the future (Sahu, 2012). Additionally, it helps the trainees concentrate and participate in the training process.
Explain the Importance of Evaluating Training Programs Using All Four Levels of Evaluation
The four levels of evaluation should be used in determining the success level of the training program. The four levels form a significant synergy and should be used together for better results (Flynn & Chao, 2013). The reaction, learning, behavioral and the results parameters offer a systematic way of determining how the employees reacted to changes through their behavior and result changes. This is vital for the employers and the trainers since they can determine the success of the training and also identify areas of a recap training.
What Are the Benefits of the Trainer and the Organization Associated with Each of the Four Levels?
The reaction measure helps the organization to know the feeling of the employees on the training and to determine its success ( Biech, 2017). The learning will reflect in changes in the employees' behavior in work places which informs the employee of areas that still need improvement. Additionally, the trainer and the organization will benefit largely when the results and the productivity of the employees improve.
Describe One Tool or Method For Evaluating Post-Training Changes In Supervisors' Learning or Behavior for Each of the Four Learning Objective Identified Earlier
Tools/Method used to measure change
Use of proper protective gear in construction sites
Reduction of site accidents and injuries
Maintenance of proper injuries records
Well-maintained OSHA injury records
Improve communication skills
Improved customer relations
Train on appropriate use of construction equipment
Increase in the quality of work offered and reduced injuries
Describe Two Specific, Concrete Examples of Behaviors Must Be Demonstrated by the Roofing Supervisors to Indicate That Change Has or Has Not Occurred
Establishment of a healthy relationship with clients. The supervisors have the mandate to ensure that there is a working relationship between them, employees and the client. This will reflect with a great execution of projects and improved productivity.
Enforces compliance with health and safety measures. All the employees under the supervisor must meet the required security measures. This will reflect in complete elimination of accidents and injuries on the construction sites.
Biech, E. (2017, March 22). Training and Development. Retrieved from My Educator Web site: file:///C:/Users/pc/Downloads/Training_and_Development.pdf
Flynn, M. K., & Chao, D. L. (2013). Why do a Needs Assessment? Human Resource and Development, 22-30.
Sahu, R. K. (2012). Training for Development. Excel Books India.
Salas, E., & Kozlowski, S. W. (2013). Learning, Training, and Development in Organizations. Taylor & Francis.
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