A 14-Year-Old Boy with Diabetes Type 1

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Blood Sugar Levels and Hormones

Blood sugar levels in the human body are supposed to be maintained within a very narrow range. For the body to achieve the right range of sugar levels, the pancreas releases two types of hormones at different times. When the blood sugars are high and above the expected range, the islet cells of the pancreas release insulin. Insulin has an effect on body cells and the liver which makes them absorb sugar from the bloodstream thus lowering its levels. On the other hand, when sugar levels go below the normal range the islet cells secrete another hormone known as glucagon. Glucagon equally has an effect on blood cells and the liver. The hormone makes these cells to secrete sugar into the bloodstream thus raising the levels. In the case of the 14-year-old who has been affected by diabetes type 1, the pancreas via its islet cells does not secrete enough insulin whenever his sugar levels are high. It is thus expected that unnatural means be used to boost the insulin levels in the bloodstream to facilitate the process of absorbing sugars by body cells and the liver (Hanas, 2007).

Key Teaching Points for the 14-year-old as he Takes NPH Insulin

A medical specialists or nurse needs to take the 14-year old through a number of steps to ensure that the insulin is properly injected into the body. For instance, the boy needs to understand the appropriate technique of administering insulin into the bloodstream. He should be directed to be injecting insulin into the muscle just below the skin. The boy needs to understand the right depth of injecting as getting so deep into the muscle increases the rate of absorption of insulin. As such, the 14-year-old has to learn the right injection depth. Rotation of the injection is equally an important item that needs to be learnt (Teuscher, 2007).

The right rotation and releasing ensures insulin is cleared off the syringe before the needle gets out of the muscle. Knowing when to inject is also of the essence. For instance, the boy needs to know the symptoms of both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia in order to inject at the right time. Being on a good diet is an aspect that the young man needs to learn. The patient needs to be trained on the type of exercise to do and when to get into such physical exercises.

Steps that should be taken to Monitor his Condition

In order to prevent serious health complications as a result of the illness, there are necessary monitoring steps that should be taken. For example, he needs to keep a proper check of his weight. The patient’s diet needs to be checked and balanced all through. Sugary foods need to be reduced. On matters exercise, it is expected that the 14-year old takes moderate exercise regularly. The patient’s skin and foot need to be properly taken care of. Periodic medical check-ups including triage checks can be undertaken on the patient. Additionally, the patient needs to be advised on stress-related matters. He should not be left alone as he is likely to get depressed. Depression may lead to the shooting of his sugar levels. Since the 14-year-old is a bit young, he needs to be monitored closely by either a guardian or an elderly person to ensure they always stay safe. Diabetes type 1 is a serious condition if it’s not properly monitored and controlled. However, with proper medication and necessary health checks the 14-year-old’s condition will improve (Hillson, 2015).


Hanas, R. (2007). Type 1 diabetes: In children, adolescents and young adults. London: Class.

Hillson, R. (2015). Diabetes care: A practical manual.

Teuscher, A. (2007). Insulin: A voice for choice. Basel: Karger.

October 05, 2023




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