BIM technology

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Introducing Building Information Modeling (BIM) to the construction industry, which combines 3D architecture modeling and computer assisted design to provide a view of all project information such as materials, cost, and plan layout.

BIM technology is rapidly being adopted in the design of buildings in construction industries all over the world. Every day, new buildings are being built that use BIM technologies. This technology makes estimating and costing building materials faster and more precise, saving time for quantity surveying and reducing material waste. Output refers to the desired services or products which come as the effect of the input/capital or the changes that come about because of the input or capital which are in line with the achievement of the end result.

Outcome refers to the immediate effects of output in a short term.

Impact refers to either negative of positive or both direct and indirect long-term effects of the input, intended or not.

The output of BIM technology is that civil engineering projects are completed in time and because minimal time is taken in estimating the cost of the required material and also there is no wastage of material since the estimation is done accurately prior to the actual construction. The outcome of BIM is that the rate of civil construction projects has doubled because less time is spent in design thus creating time for more projects. The impact of BIM is that Quantity Surveyors are losing their jobs in the civil engineering projects as the estimation costs are done directly feeding properties and values of materials in the model instead of doing actual surveying ground work. Another impact is that firms have to invest more in training their staff on the use of the new technology thereby incurring more cost.

c) The impact of BIM technology can be mitigated by incorporating Quantity Surveyors in the BIM projects as the overseers or managers of the projects as they have good background knowledge of on surveying. Firms should hire employee engineers that are already equipped with the BIM knowledge to cut the cost of training their employees.

(2) a) 202.8 million tons of total wastage.

Figure 1: Wastage tonnage generation in the UK by tonnage

Figure 2: Waste generation split by waste material

b) A- CD&E

B- Soils

C- Dredging spoils

D- C&I

E- Household

F- Others

CD&E - Construction, Demolition & Excavation

c) Construction- 14%, Demolition- 4.7%, Excavation -5.7%

Management practices are a waste since the processes are the exact opposite of each other hence it is difficult to have counter management strategies.

(3) i Generation of carbon monoxide gas. No carbon monoxide gas is produced from a hydroelectric power plant since there is no burning of any organic matter but the generation of electricity.

Generation of organic matter from decomposing organic matter takes place even without the dam.

Radioactivity. Radioactive materials do not exist in the dam construction.

iii Rainwater harvesting is collection of rainwater into tanks from the roofs of houses for domestic use.

Positive Impacts

Prevent soil erosion and floods caused by running rain water.

Reduced cost of water for domestic water

Access to clean water natural water with minimal treatment.

Negative impacts

Not enough sips into the ground leaving the ground without any moisture for plant growth.

Underground water resources are depleted over time.

Can be solved by allowing rain to flow into the ground from time to time.

(2) a) Factors that influence ecosystems

Climate change. Plants thrive under certain climatic conditions such as places with water and die off during drought. Animals also migrate from drought areas to greener lands.

Over-predation. When a particular species in an ecosystem is over hunted, it faces extinction and in turn the predator turns to another source of food for survival.

Competition, especially among plants, can cause superior plants to outgrow others in search of sunlight.

Symbiosis. Some plants tend to grow where other plants grow in order to thrive and at the same time providing some form of support to the other plant. Some animals also live in environments where they can have symbiotic relations.

(3) a) Residents near the railroad are adversely affected by the noise from the loud moving train on tracks. Exposure to this kind of noise over long periods leads to poor hearing ability and even deafness especially in young children.

Emissions carbon monoxide from ventilation shafts also a danger to the human health as it causes air pollution which contributes to global warming. This kind of pollution may lead to several respiratory related diseases including lung cancer.

Electromagnetic disturbances from the trains are also a major concern issue. Electromagnetic radiations can cause burns permanent scars when in close contact with human skin.

b) Noise pollution can be controlled by building the railroads in low populated areas or relocating the people near the rail line to other places away from the railway line. Also the noise from the repair stations can be controlled by working in sound-proof buildings.

Air pollution caused by the trains can be controlled by dilution of the emitted gases or by using catalytic converters on the exhaust gas nozzle. Alternatively, the power mechanism of the trains can be changed from internal combustion engines to electric power.

The specific parts of the trains that emit electromagnetic radiations should be covered with a protective covering such as using special types of metal sheets to keep the radiation away.

December 08, 2022

Economics Science


Industry Architecture

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