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On September 22, 2011, the Global Counter-Terrorism Forum called on its members to implement the Cairo Declaration, which concentrates on both counterterrorism and the rule of law. (GCTF). This target's main objective was to develop improved procedures that would enforce a more effective rule of law that is founded on criminal justice and its response to terrorism. Later, on November 3, 2011, in Washington, D.C., the Global Counter-Terrorism Forum members convened. The main topic of discussion was how to stop terrorist activity while also outlining the responsibilities of the various authorities in the criminal justice system. The GCTF convened once more in Rabat on February 7, 2012. The meetings in Rabat were subsequent which resulted in the up-coming document that focused on practices on real criminal justice counter-terrorism. The report was later published in the Cairo Declaration whereby the states were asked to adhere to the enacted practices.
The practices aimed at addressing terrorism, which was built on a functional and firm criminal justice system. The system could handle criminal offenses and protect the rights of the accused. The states that were involved in the meeting of the GCTF were also requested to share the opinion and obligations with the Working Group. Having articulated the practices, the Working Group recognizes that for any Justice System to be effective, its primary objective regarding terrorism is to prevent any terror acts before the production of large scale casualties. While doing that, they respected and applied the international law while promoting the rule of law regarding terrorism. The Criminal Justice System can curb terrorism with an effective prosecution, investigation, and proper punishment if the terrorist attacks occur. Some of the good practices/solutions that had been formulated include:
Protection of the victims, informants, investigators, witnesses, juries, and the judges is quite an essential factor as they play a significant role regarding investigations of the judicial proceedings in the criminal justice-related and counter-terrorism cases. These people can participate in legal proceedings without the fear of being reprised and therefore need to be protected by all standards. With an assured security, they can believe in the accountability and integrity of the judicial system which results to their full participation in the proceedings regarding criminal justice-related cases.
Coordination and Cooperation
Encouraging collaboration and coordination among inter-governmental agencies, which might have relevant research information regarding counter-terrorism and justice, is a contributing factor when it comes to eradication of terrorism (Bailey et al., 2000). The effective investigation is accounted by gathering and analyzing information that has been collected by some agencies in the same government. By doing this, identification and disruption of any plots by terrorists or criminals are made easier.
Where achievable, all states have been urged to concoct satisfactory systems for the elimination unlawful exercises. The undercover investigations will help to reduce terror acts. States have to provide a legal framework and measures for the surveys. The members of the Global Counter-Terror Forum came up with the solutions to curb terrorism and criminal behaviors (Vermeulen et al., 2013).
The system ensured that all criminals were punished. A system to provide efficient incarceration of the convicted criminals was developed. This system can deter all the crimes; prevent prisoners from being radicalized as well as preventing terrorist activities. The system also aimed at preventing terrorists or organizations that are involved in terrorism from funding their acts. They allied with the United Nations Security Council. The states enacted the law that criminalizes funding of criminal activities. The International Convection pressed illegal funding which the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) implemented. The organization also encouraged the development of skill and expertise in criminal investigations. The development of a professional cadre of trainees promoted effectiveness in the criminal justice system to counter terrorism and crime.
The United Nations Security Council was the least impactful partner since it only dealt with a particular area on criminalizing funding of any criminal activity. Well, the most impactful partner in the amendments of the solutions was the Criminal Justice system. The Criminal Justice System is able to protect the rights of the oppressed and the accused as well as handle criminal offenses.
It is essential for agencies to help each other when it comes to eradicating terrorism in the states via the criminal justice system. The Working Group encourages the states and involves agencies in the collaboration of eliminating terrorism (Persak, 2016) plays a significant role. The collaboration could have been improved if the states focused on the following; an increment of concentrate in the development of entities majoring in criminal justice, further on their inter-agency collaboration and come up with better ideas regarding criminal justice.
Bailey, R. V., Williams, B., &the University of Sheffield. (2000). Inter-agency partnerships in youth justice: Implementing the Crime and Disorder Act 1998. Sheffield: Joint Unit for Social Services Research.
Peršak, N. (2016). Legitimacy and trust in the criminal law, policy, and justice: Norms, procedures, outcomes. Routledge.
Vermeulen, G. (2013). Obstacles in horizontal inter-state cooperation in enforcing universality based jurisdiction & furthering vertical cooperation in the areas of collaboration with justice, witness protection, and sentence execution. In 13th Specialization Course in International Criminal Law'The Future of International Criminal Law in the Era of Globalization'.
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