Comparison of IDN and ISDN

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ISDN refers to a design that allows data to be transmitted from one source to another at a high speed. Therefore, ISDN improves the quality of the transmission of data. Under the ISDN, noise interruptions are minimized since it uses digital signals that make it easy to remove noise. IDN is a service that is utilized to provide digital services between companies that provide phone services. One of the differences between ISDN and IDN is the speed of transmission. The ISDN is more efficient since it provides higher speeds compared to IDN. The other difference between ISDN and IDN is that the ISDN can provide both data and voice using the same line while IDN can only provide data and voice using different lines. The ISDN digitizes both data and voice and fastens the process of transmission between the phone company and the customers. Another difference between ISDN and IDN is that IDN is less reliable compared to ISDN. Therefore, most of the phone service provide would prefer using ISDN since it is fast and enables the company to save. The ISDN has some additional features that are not present in the IDN. The additional features of ISDN include forwarding of calls. The ISDN is accessed using various interfaces which are R interface; U interface, T interface, and S interface (European Telecommunication Standards Institute, 1993).

Broadband ISDN

Broadband ISDN is a network that transits broadband services by using high speed internet. Some of the connections that are supported by B ISDN include point to multipoint connection, permanent point to point, semi-permanent, and switched. A B ISDN uses the concept of ISDN which transmits both voice and data using a single line. The B ISDN also supports circuit and packet mode connections. The B ISDN has high intelligent capability that support advanced services such as network management and control. The B ISDN also supports the maintanance of tools used in the network. The reference connection of ISDN is also similar to the one in B ISDN since the two services are based on a similar concept. The technology and implementation of B ISDN is done independently which provides a detailed functionality. There are various differences between the types of services provided by ISDN. One of the services is the constant rate service which ensures that there is a fixed rate that is charged for the services offered. The other type of service is the variable bit rate. The variable bit rate changes with the level of traffic in the transmission process. The other type of service maximum bit rate sets a certain threshold of the user network that should not be exceed to ensure quality if transmission (European Telecommunication Standards Institute, 1993).

X.25 protocol and OSI layer

X.25 refers to a model that is used for communication that is transmitted using packets (Mitchell, 2017). The communication in X.25 is transmitted using a wide area network. The X.5 sets out the procedures and rules that should be followed while transmitting data. The three layers of X.25 include the data link layer, the physical layer, and the packet layer. The physical layer specifies the standards and rule of the X.21 protocol. The data link layer provides control of the data link by using the HDLC protocol (Mitchell, 2017). The data link has three types of frames which are S frame, I frame, and the U frame. The frames are used to control flow and minimize the amount of errors. Also, the frames are used to disconnect connection between the DCE and DTE. The packet layer ensures that a connection has been established. Also, the packet layer performs the function of data transfer and termination of the connection. X.25 is different from OSI since the former has 3 layers while the latter has 7 layers. The OSI is a technique that is utilized in building network systems architecture. The layers of OSI include physical layer, data link layer, transport layer, network layer, presentation layer, session, layer, and application layer.

Advantages and Disadvantages of ATM

One of the advantages of ATM is that it provides high flexibility for network access and, therefore, the users are able to establish different connections and services using one UNI. The other advantage of ATM is that enhance the usage of network resources by ensuring that the optimal benefits have been attained. Another advantage of ATM is that it provides independence while transmitting data. Also, ATM has flexible allocation that allow network access on a permanent or a semi-permanent basis. The other advantage of ATM is that it provides a bandwidth allocation that is dynamic allowing an uninterrupted connection on the network. Another advantage of the ATM is that it provides multiple supports of the services provided. Despite the numerous benefits that are associated with ATM, there are certain disadvantages that results from its use. One of the disadvantages of using ATM is that is expensive during the initial stage of its implementation. The other disadvantage of ATM is that it requires new hardware and software to be acquired. ATM also leads to the elimination of jobs since the technology does not require the organization to employ many people. Also, ATM is prone to attacks that can be in the form of viruses, hackers which affect the normal operation of the business (European Telecommunication Standards Institute, 1993).

ATM protocol

The protocol architecture of ATM is meant to support data transfer with the main aim of improving the quality of service. ATM protocol architecture divides users' data into various components which are small packets, called cells, and fixed-length packets. Virtual connection is used to transport the data. The speed of ATM can be enhanced by allowing the switching process to take place in hardware. The ATM architecture has three dimensions which are plane management, layer management, and control plane. The dimensions in the ATM ensure that the relationship between the protocols of the network has been improved. The horizontal layer of the ATM ensures that there is coordination between the different dimensions. The control plane provides a degree of independence between the protocols. The function of the protocol is to provide communication between the switches in the ATM. There are two types of interface in the ATM's structure. The interfaces are network-node interface and the user-network interface (, 2017).

Examples of ATM networks

Point to point connection is one example of the ATM network. The point to point connection allows two devices to be connected by using an SVC. The other example of ATM connection is the point to multipoint connection. The point to multipoint connection creates a connection between one device and multiple devices (, 2017).


European Telecommunication Standards Institute. (1993). Broadband Integrated Services

Digital Network (B-ISDN); B-ISDN principles. Retrieved 26th

January 2017, from

Mitchell, B. (2017). A Guide to X.25 in Computer Networking. Retrieved 26th January 2017,

from (2017). ATM Protocol Architecture. Retrieved 26th January 2017, from (2017). ATM Connection Types. Retrieved 26th January 2017, from

September 04, 2023


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