DNA in Forensic Science

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In forensics, the use of DNA analysis has been used to achieve a variety of goals. The police prosecution has been the most important use of DNA technologies. Various law enforcement authorities rely on DNA technologies to detect suspects. For example, in many rape and murder cases, the investigation has often concentrated on collecting evidence from crime scenes. Such materials are then subjected to DNA analysis in order to locate the individuals involved in a particular crime. DNA fingerprinting is used to identify the perpetrators. Also, DNA technology can be used to identify deceased persons, for instance, victims of accidents and other types of tragedies (Graham, 2006). The third application of DNA technology in forensic science is the to help courts decide on the parents of a child. Many cases of parents running away from taking care of their biological children have been on the rise. In such cases, the officers may take biologic samples from the parent and child. A DNA typing is then carried out using, say, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), to determine the DNA sequences. The obtained sequences are then compared and the decision about parentage made by the level of similarity.
Population Evolution and Microbial Life
Population evolution denotes an adjustment in the frequencies of genes or combinations of genetic components a genetic pool. Population evolution leads to changes in the genetic components, hence lead to variation in of phenotypic manifestations between generations of a given species. The concept of population variations and an understanding of microbial life have multiple implications, especially in medicine. A comprehension of population evolution in microbes is critical for the realization of certain goals. One such goal in genetic diversity (Bassalo, Liu & Gill, 2016). Through genetic diversity, it is possible to alter the capabilities of microbes so that they have the genes required for a certain activity. For instance, genes of yeasts may be altered to make them more efficient in brewing. A second application of population evolution and microbial life is the control of the disease. By targeting certain stages in the lives of microbes, it is possible to design drugs that alter the genetic composition so that they cannot cause infections. Through this, population evolution and microbial life play a key role in disease management. The third besides pharmacological agents, the genetic manipulation of microbes as a result of an understanding of population evolution and microbial life has led to the production of insulin, used in diabetes. 
Biological Diversity Evolution
Biological diversity evolution leads to the creation of ecosystems characterized by different organisms, showing different tendencies. The basis of biological diversity is an evolution where plants and animals change and develop attributes critical for the survival in a given environment. The concept of biological diversity evolution has been utilized by scientists to initiate improvements in the environment and conserve its contents. One way is combating drought (Healing Earth, 2017). Scientists have often introduced plants with improved drought resilience profile in some parts of the world. This has benefited the animals, including humans in such regions to survive. Another use is the introduction of bees in firms to assist in the pollination process. Such eliminates chances of extinction, as the plants can reproduce. Certain bacteria with improved nitrogen-fixing profiles have been introduced in plantations to improve the performance of crops. In this regard, biological diversity evolution plays a key role in ensuring adequate food production. 
Plants and Animal Evolution
The concept of evolution in plants and animals have been widely applied in agriculture. The process entails the initiation of genetic changes in plants and animals to come up with organisms with desirable attributes. In plants, the concept has been used to develop crops with improved characteristics. By altering the genetic composition of plants, scientists have come up with crops that are drought resistant. This has been dining through the introduction of genes that limit the amount of water required by a plant for survival. Such enables the plants to survive in the increasingly complex environment. Another application is the development of plant varieties that can resist pests and mature faster. Such has been helpful in ascertaining food security among humans (Thrall et al., 2011). In animals, biological diversity has been applied in the improvement of breeds. For instance, through cross-breeding, biologists have created breeds of dairy cows that produce more milk than the average produced by original breeds. Further, faster-maturing bulls have also been created.
Population Growth
The basic conceptualization of population growth is the increase in the number of organisms in a given habitat. Information about population growth has applications in various aspects of biology. The first application of such information is the projection of the population of a given species for a given period. Knowing the likely growth of a population is important for determining the number of resources required to manage, say, wildlife. The government can increase the number of rangers in a park based on the projected population growth. Through a retrospective analysis of population growth, it is possible to quantify the influence of factors that affect the population of a given species in a specified ecosystem. For instance, information about population growth of fish in a pond can be used to determine the impacts of high temperatures on the population of fish. Population growth can also be used to show the relationship between population dynamics and the evolution. According to Godfray and Rees (2002), evolution denotes emergence of new attributes in a given population. Through observing population growth, it is possible to quantify the implications of evolution on the survival of a given species.
Biomes and Ecosystem
Biome refers to an area within the surface of the earth that can be named classified according to the organisms that dominate. Biomes are different from an ecosystem, which refers to the interaction of all kinds of organisms. The two concepts have applications in biology. Biomes play a crucial role in conservation efforts. For instance, designating a place based on the dominating organism is helpful in protecting such areas. The classifications of places into biomes leads to a well-defined demarcation so that people understand the limits of their activities. Further, biomes can be used to track the changes to a given species over time. Considering that a single species mainly constitute a biome, it becomes easier for biologists to monitor and quantify the changes. Additionally, they can determine the pressures in the environment that contribute to the observed changes. Information about an ecosystem is helpful in the explanations of the relationships between different organisms. For instance, symbiotic relationship between plants and animals.  
Bassalo, M. C., Liu, R., & Gill, R. T. (2016). Directed evolution and synthetic biology applications to microbial systems. Current opinion in biotechnology, 39, 126-133.
Godfray, H. C. J., & Rees, M. (2002). Population growth rates: issues and an application. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 357(1425), 1307-1319.
Graham, E. A. (2006). Disaster victim identification. Forensic science, medicine, and pathology, 2(3), 203-207.
Healing Earth (2017). Biodiversity and Evolution. Retrieved from http://healingearth.ijep.net/biodiversity/biodiversity-and-evolution
Thrall, P. H., Oakeshott, J. G., Fitt, G., Southerton, S., Burdon, J. J., Sheppard, A., ... & Ford Denison, R. (2011). Evolution in agriculture: the application of evolutionary approaches to the management of biotic interactions in agro‐ecosystems. Evolutionary Applications, 4(2), 200-215.

May 04, 2022

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