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The first time nuclear war was on the verge of happening was in 1962, when it appeared to the entire world that it could not be avoided. As a result of the USSR placing nuclear missiles in Cuba, the world was put in danger during the Cuban Missile Crisis. In response, the United States threatened to attack Russia with nuclear missiles. The United States viewed this as an act of aggression, which prompted difficult negotiations between the USSR and US over a 13-day period. Cuban leader Fidel Castro was another sentimental and active participant. The final resolution of the conflict was peacefully achieved when Soviet missiles of Cuba were dismantled in exchange for the removal of the US missiles from Turkey, Europe, and a promise by the US not to invade Cuba. This incident launched the world into a new era, which presented nuclear weapons as a source of power. The incident of the Cuban Missile Crisis still connects with us today because of the power nuclear weapons present, which provides incentives for countries to want them. Although nuclear technology was around prior to this incident, the power they represented didn’t fully develop until this time. Since the crisis, five new countries have obtained nuclear weapons, making a total of nine countries today with advanced weaponry. The lack of concern for the proliferation of the club is troubling. Another way the Cuban incident applies to today is the possibility of nuclear terrorism. Republican Senator Richard Lugar conducted a survey of 85 national security experts which reached a similarly alarming conclusion. Although nuclear weapons were around prior to the Missile Crisis, we were never as close to the horror of a nuclear war as we are today.
The Cuban Missile Crisis began as a distributive negotiation. The conflict seemed to be initially about the removal of the intermediate-range Soviet nuclear missiles from Cuba. However, the advancement of the negotiation revealed that underlying interests were at play and the “Excom” was able to work with Khrushchev, publically and privately, to reach an agreement that was integrative in nature and allowed all parties to come away without losing face.
Thirteen Days Summary
In one of the scenes from the movie, the representative of the USA Army tries to persuade the President to start military actions against Cuba and Soviet Union. During the scene two generals used the tactics of united two-against-one persuasion, pressing Kennedy with their authority, limiting the time and hurrying the President to take final right decision. In this scene, we were able to observe four sources of power. The reward power comes when Mr. LeMay and Mr. Taylor have the power to make the future safe—if president John Kennedy approved their plan. The legitimate power comes from the generals’ position in the government as the defenders of the nation’s peace and protection. Moreover, the President, as the Commander-of-Chief, is connected with the Army and Generals in terms of solidarity and mutuality in the face of the world trouble. In the same scene, we can see the expert power through Mr. LeMay and Mr. Taylor. Since both of them have knowledge and expertise in the question of hostilities, they are proficient in missile characteristics and time for installation. Additionally, the coercive power, which is some kind of inversion, is hidden and veiled, but still presented. As long as the generals can’t really possess coercive power overtly to the President, they threaten the President with the possibility of WW3. However, the generals and the military omission can lead to the danger that the President can’t prevent without Army Forces.
There were various strategies used in this scene. Both generals use promise peace in the USA as a reward for future and present negotiations; their options as the only tool that is able to achieve peace. They are insisting that the attack will guarantee protection. The generals are the generators and producers of this piece in the world but only by means of war. Recommendation strategy comes when the generals exchange information with the President and then insisted on the only final decision. A caveat with a large share of pressure and manipulation is used in this particular scene. The threat strategy is used when both generals stated that if their plan wasn’t finally put in action, the catastrophe will begin.
Summary of the Current International Negotiation
One of the international negotiation that has been hitting the headlines since the beginning of this year (2017) concerns the United States and North Korea. North Korea has been building up nuclear weapons which cause havoc in many countries since in the event of war such weapons can cause devastating damage to people and property. North Korea had agreed to abandon all its nuclear programs just some ten years ago but refused to keep their promise of denuclearization (Washington Times Advocacy department, pg. 4). The North Korean tests on nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles have unsettled many nations not just in Asia and the United States but also in other developing countries. The regime that is currently led by Kim Jong-un’s carried some series id missile tests and denoted a nuclear bomb early in September 2017.
According to Alijezra newspaper in September 2017, North Korea issued a threat against the US promising that it would shoot down all the American bombers. The president of the United States, Donald Trump, in turn, responded that North Korea was declaring war on United States and that in as much as that was not the best option that it intended to take they too were ready for war. Trump also added that should they be forced to enter into war, the aftermath would be devastating for North Korea.
As from third November 2017, Donald Trump traveled to Asia, specifically to North Korea where he is expected to meet with Kim Jong-un and advise him to stop the nuclear and missiles tests to enhance peace across the globe. US has however received some critics with regards to its approach to the North Korean Missile threats. Some people have actually urged that US needs to develop a down to earth attitude depicted form other countries which are much closer to North Korea including Russia and China. However, as the super power, United States should be able to maintain its power and protect itself from foreign threats. It also has an obligation to assist other nations which may not have the capacity to fight back terrorist and other powerful militia groups. For instance, in the current visit that Donald Trump has made to South Korea he is expected to promise a helping hand incase North Korea decides to take a military action by engaging in a war.
One of the similarities in both negotiations is that in both scenarios the issue is on war weapons that serve as a threat to other countries. There are options for peaceful negotiating in both scenarios but there is also the pressure to use force and realize peace. The United States happens to be central in both of the negation. The respective presidents of the United States have a mandate in either situation to make a decision and they seem to be more relaxed to take start a war. It is also apparent that the main cause for alarm in both scenarios regards the issue of fear that another World War may break out.
Most people in both cases still remember the damage that was caused by the nuclear bombing in Nagasaki and Hiroshima and its devastating effects in which more than three hundred thousand people died. The motive of any nation which decides to make atomic bomb and missiles is always perceived as preparation for war and causes alarm as witnessed in both negotiations. However, in as much as these negotiations have some similarities, there are various differences that can be observed.
To start with, in the movie the country that is presenting a threat is Cuba whereas in the current situation the country that is causing threat is North Korea. The president of the United States in the movie was John Kennedy while in the current negotiation the president is Donald Trump. In the movie, the advisors of the president seem to be advising him to give orders for military actions against the Soviet Union (Russia) and Cuba. In the current negotiation, however, the advisors are opting for peaceful resolution through negotiation. Military actions will only be issued in the event that the peaceful negotiation has been completely turned down. The other difference is that in the movie other states that took an active or passive role in the negotiation process are not featured making the all negotiation to seem like one between US and Cuba. However, in the current situation with North Korea there are other Nations which are actively involved. For example, Japan has also been in the fore front urging North Korea to stope its missile tests and manufacture of the atomic bomb. The United Nations has also actively been involved in the attempt to negotiate with North Korea to withdraw its threat (Washington Times Advocacy department, pg. 6). Lastly but not least, in the movie, two nations were posing a threat to United States. Currently, it is only North Korea which is posing the missile threat.
Alijezra (2017). Trump: US ready to take military options against North Korea. Accessed, 7 Nov. 2017 from http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/09/rejects-north-korea-war- allegations-absurd-170926081659916.html
Washington Times Advocacy department (2016). North Korea’s nuclear threat: Assessment Global Responses and solutions. Accessed, 7 Nov. 2017 from https://www.du.edu/korbel/media/korbel-internal-newsletter/twt-special-report-north- koreas-nuclear-threat-april12016.pdf
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